Friday, 4 December 2020

Provisional Government of Bangladesh

 






 During the War of Liberation, the Provisional Government was formed on 10 April 1971 with Chuadanga District as the capital of Bangladesh . On 17 April 1971, the members of the cabinet of this government were sworn in at Vaidyanath Tala (now Mujibnagar). March 6, 1971, the declaration of independence and against the Pakistani occupation forces started pratirodh yuddha country's liberation war of Bangladesh to conduct Liberation Organization and coordination, earning the support of the international community and the support of the state of war in IndiaThe role of this government in maintaining organizational relations with the government and the army was immense. With the formation of this government, the resistance war against the Pakistani aggressors turned into a fierce battle and the victory of Bangladesh as an independent and sovereign state was accelerated.





Background 





On the night of March 5, 1971, Operation Searchlight took place at the time when the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the Pakistani army before his arrest in the early hours of March 6, the night of March 5, Bangabandhu EPR 's a small transmitter in the country declared independence. Then on 26 March Major Ziaur Rahman officially declared the independence of Bangladesh on behalf of Bangabandhu from the Kalurghat radio station in Chittagong .From that day onwards, Bangladesh became known to the outside world as an independent sovereign state.





Meanwhile , Tajuddin Ahmed , one of the main leaders of the Awami League , fled his residence during the horrific massacre on March 25 . It was at this time that he began planning to form the government of Bangladesh. He continued to think of forming a government to carry out this policy in an organizational way, first in self-defense, then in preparation and finally in counter-attack. Meanwhile, on the evening of March 30, he reached the West Bengal border on the Faridpur - Kushtia route . Barrister Amir-ul Islam crossed the Meherpur border on 31 March and entered India . Meherpur about crossing the borderThe then sub-divisional administrator Tawfiq-i-Elahi Chowdhury gave them all the help. After crossing the border, Golak Majumder Tajuddin Ahmed, the then Inspector General of the Indian Border Security Force , and Amir-ul-Islam, the barrister, were accorded due protection. After receiving the news from Golak Majumdar, KF Rustamji, Director General of the Indian Border Security Force, spoke to them at their shelter and with Tajuddin Ahmed, and was fully aware of the overall situation in East Bengal and the indomitable desire of the Bengalis for independence. Arriving at the border, Tajuddin saw that the Indian army and the border guards had nothing to do until they received instructions from the Indian government to support the rebel forces of the Bengal Regiment. Tajuddin Ahmed BSF on the formation of the Liberation ArmyAsked for help, the then BSF chief told him that training and providing arms to the freedom fighters was a time-consuming task. He added that he would not be able to provide training and weapons to the Mukti Bahini as there was no instruction from the Indian government on training till then. When KF Rustamji contacted the senior officials of Delhi, he was informed to take Tajuddin Ahmed and Barrister Amir-ul Islam to Delhi . Purpose The meeting between Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Tajuddin Ahmed. Upon his arrival in Delhi, the Indian government confirmed from various sources that Tajuddin Ahmed was a close associate of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. Before meeting with Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, Tajuddin Ahmed had several meetings with senior Indian government officials and he explained the help and cooperation needed to conduct the liberation struggle of the Bengalis . At this time he realized that if he met as a leader of the Awami League, nothing could be expected without a little sympathy and sympathy. No country in the world would extend a helping hand to Bangladesh without the strong support of that government for the formation of the government and for the war of liberation. On the eve of the meeting with the Indian Prime Minister, a senior official asked Tajuddin if a government had been formed in favor of an independent Bangladesh. He then decided that he would present himself as a representative of the Bangladesh government at the meeting. Because of the 'resolution passed in the Indian Parliament on 31 March to help the struggle of the people of East Bengal' Tajuddin thinks that it can be effective. At the beginning of his meeting with Indira Gandhi, Tajuddin said that the government was formed by declaring Bangladesh independent on March 26 as soon as the Pakistani invasion began. Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib is the president of that independent Bangladesh government and all the senior colleagues who attended the Mujib- Yahya meeting are members of the cabinet. Apart from the arrest of Sheikh Mujib, the news of other senior leaders and activists of the party remained unknown till then.At that meeting, Tajuddin Ahmed requested Indira Gandhi to recognize independent Bangladesh. Indira Gandhi assured him that formal recognition would be given in due course. Thus began the idea of ​​a temporary Bangladesh government.





Officially to form the government 





Indira Gandhi after a meeting with the co-operation of all of Bangladesh Awami League promised Tajuddin Ahmed MNA (MNA) and emapiedera (MPA) in Kushtia district, called the session border.





Presentation of Guard of Honor to the Acting President Syed Nazrul Islam on 16 April 1971





In that session the cabinet was unanimously formed to conduct the war of liberation and run the government. The cabinet and MNAs and MPAs proclaimed Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman as the President of the Government of the Sovereign People's Republic of Bangladesh on 10 April. Syed Nazrul Islam was elected Vice President and Acting President in the absence of Bangabandhu. Tajuddin Ahmed was appointed Prime Minister, Capt. M Mansur Ali , Khandaker Mushtaq Ahmed and AHM Kamruzzaman were appointed members of the cabinet. On 11 April MAG Osmani was appointed Chief of Army Staff. Prime Minister Tajuddin delivered the speech on 11 April announcing the formation of the cabinet on Bangladesh Betar. 





Sculpture of members of the Council of Ministers of the Provisional Government of Bangladesh in 1971





Then, as per the previous announcement on 16 April 1971 , the swearing in ceremony of the cabinet was held at a mango orchard at Baidyanath Tala in Meherpur of Kushtia district . The arrival of leaders and invited guests started from 9 am. About 50 local and foreign journalists were present at the event . The swearing-in ceremony started at 11 am. The program started with the recitation of the Quran and the performance of the national anthem of Bangladesh and at the beginning Bangladesh was declared as the 'People's Republic of Bangladesh'. The caretaker President then introduced the Prime Minister and his three colleagues. He then announced the names of Col. M. A. G. Osmani as the Chief of the Armed Forces of the new state and Col. Abdur Rab as the Chief of Staff of the Army.. Then the declaration of independence of Bangladesh was readthere. The Declaration was issued earlier on 10 April and was declared effective on 26 March 1971. From that day the place was named Mujibnagar   . Both the President and the Prime Minister addressed the function. In his speech, Prime Minister Tajuddin Ahmed described the context of Bangladesh's declaration of independence. At the end of his speech, he said,





We made our statement to the world that no other nation in the world can claim more recognition than us. Because no other nation has fought harder than us. Did not accept further sacrifice. Joy Bangla.





 That is the objective of the international community through national and international journalists madhya diyei prime minister calls for recognition of Bangladesh and thus the liberation of the People's Republic of Bangladesh marks.





The formation of the interim government 





President - Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (Prisoner in Pakistan)





Vice President - Syed Nazrul Islam (Acting President in the absence of the President)





Prime Minister - Tajuddin Ahmed





No.Names of Ministries 
1Ministry of Defense.
2Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
3Ministry of Finance, Industry and Commerce.
4Cabinet Secretariat.
5Department of General Administration.
6Ministry of Health and Welfare.
7Ministry of Information and Radio.
8Ministry of Home Affairs.
9Ministry of Relief and Rehabilitation.
10Department of Parliamentary Affairs.
11Department of Agriculture.
12Department of Engineering.





 Regional Administrative Council  





In order to make the civil administration more democratic, considering the regional advantages of Bangladesh, the whole of Bangladesh was divided into 9 zones in July 1971 and finally 11 zones in September 1971. By September, the regions were arranged as follows:





Regional Administrative Council at a glance
No.ZoneHead officeAreaChairmanSecretary
1South East Zone-1SubroomChittagong , Chittagong Hill Tracts and Feni subdivisionsProfessor Nurul Islam ChowdhurySA Samad
2South East Zone-2AgartalaNoakhali except DhakaComilla and FeniZahur Ahmad ChowdhuryKR Ahmed
3East ZoneDharmanagarHabiganj , Moulvibazar subdivisionColonel MA RobK A Hasan
4North East Zone-1DaukiSylhet SadarSunamganjDewan Farid GaziCSH Chowdhury
5North East Zone-2TuraMymensingh , TangailShamsur Rahman KhanLutfur Rahman
6North ZoneCooch BeharRangpurMatiur RahmanFayezuddin Ahmed
7West Zone-1BalurghatDinajpur , BograAbdur RahimA. Qasim Khan
8West Zone-2MaldaRajshahiAshraful IslamZ. I Bhuiyan
9South-West Zone-1KrishnanagarPabnaKushtiaAbdur Rauf ChowdhuryShamsul Haque
10South West Zone-2BangaonFaridpur , JessorePhanibhushan MajumdarBB believes
11South ZoneBarasatBarisal , Patuakhali KhulnaThere was no one until NovemberA. Momen





Regional Administrative Councils are formed for the overall supervision of each zone. The members of the National and Provincial Councils of the respective areas are made members of the Administrative Council and one by one the Chairman elected by their votes is made the head of the Council. From the government, one secretary is appointed under the chairman. At the same time, 6 officers from the government are appointed in each zone to perform their departmental duties.





The rank of the officers was: - [ 1 ] Regional Health Officer. [ 2 ] Education Officer. [ 3 ] Relief and Rehabilitation Officer. [ 4 ] Engineering Officer. [ 5 ] Police officers. [ 6 ] Information Officer. [ 6 ] Accounting Officer.





During the war, various activities and plans of the government 





The various activities of the government during the war helped to keep the war going. Here is a brief overview of the role and work of government ministries.





Ministry of Defense 





In order to organize the war of liberation, Colonel MAG Osmani has been appointed as the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and Lt. Col. Abdur Rob has been appointed as the Chief of Staff and Group Captain AK Khandaker has been appointed as the Deputy Chief of Staff. Is divided into sectors . These sectors were again divided into sub-sectors by the sector commanders according to their respective advantages. Colonel Osmani also formed three brigade-sized forces named after half of their commanders ( S Force, K Force, Z Force).





Ministry of Foreign Affairs 





The main task of the State Department was to build public opinion abroad and, as far as possible, to seek institutional recognition from friendly countries. Although there was a separate ministry and its staff called the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, almost all the work of the Foreign Office was carried out under the direct supervision of the Prime Minister.





Finance, Ministry of Industry and Commerce 





The Ministry of Finance, Industry and Commerce was set up to manage the expenditure of various ministries during the war, to manage the resources received from the battlefield, and to make proper use of financial aid received from friendly countries. After the commencement of the work of the Ministry, it became necessary to take action on some important issues and this action was considered as the driving force of the government. The following measures are taken:





Budget formulation and income-expenditure accounting;





Preparation of assets collected from within Bangladesh and other sources;





Fulfilling the responsibility of making payments to various organizations and individuals and formulating rules;





Introduction of financial discipline;





Collection of revenue and duties;





Formation of committee to investigate financial irregularities. [৮]





A fund called Bangladesh Fund was opened to finance the Government of Bangladesh . The fund received money from India, other countries of the world and various non-governmental organizations. The proceeds of the commemorative stamp issued by the government of independent Bangladesh are deposited in the government treasury. The Swadhin Bangla football team deposited Rs 3 lakh in the government treasury from tickets for exhibition football matches in different cities in India. [৮]





The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting 





Main article: Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra





Main article: Newspapers published during the war of liberation





And the success of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting bahumukhi kadike independent Bengali radio programs provided by the freedom fighters and ordinary people endless enthusiasm, the newspapers, small brochures, leaflets, etc., through the regular publication of these plans on the battlefield, and these had reached different khabarakhabra The work of the Ministry of Information.





Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra has helped the freedom fighters on the battlefield from beginning to end.





Apart from this, various published newspapers published important news like the battlefield battlefield, the bravery of the freedom fighters, the condition of the refugee camps and the inhuman life of the people, the call for recognition of Bangladesh, the news of genocide by Pakistani forces.





Through these activities, the role of the Ministry of Information was immense in maintaining the morale of the fighters and common people during the war of liberation.





Interior, 





the Ministry of Relief and Rehabilitation 





The scope of work of this ministry was not as wide as that of other ministries during the war. Due to the destruction and looting by the Pakistani forces, the civilians were displaced and took refuge on the border. At this time the relief problem became apparent. The role of this ministry has increased due to the deteriorating law and order situation in the refugee camps in the border areas and inside the country. For these reasons, the structure and the functioning of the police administration took several steps to the Ministry of the Interior.





The work of the Relief and Rehabilitation Department was carried out under the direct control of the Ministry of Home Affairs. The department was organized under a relief commissioner. He worked under the direct supervision of the Home Minister. Applications were accepted for distribution of relief materials. There were different types of applications. These were scrutinized. Relief was provided only to the citizens of Bangladesh. 





The Ministry of Health and Welfare 





During the war, both the needs and the role of this department were immense. In the early days of the war of liberation, military hospitals were set up in many places near the border for the needs of the war. On the other hand, volunteer doctors and Awami League workers set up field hospitals locally, especially along the Tripura-Comilla border . As per the decision taken by the government on May 2, the work of this ministry started with the appointment of Dr. T. Hossain as the Health Secretary. The main task of this department was to provide services to those who were injured in enemy attacks. Besides, it was decided to provide medical facilities to all classes of citizens of Bangladesh in the private sector and it was implemented.





The Regional Administrative Council was in charge of relief camps, youth camps, and co-operation with the army.





5 sub-councils are formed in each regional zone: - 1 | Finance sub-council. 2 | Relief sub-council. 3 | Health Sub-Council. 4 | Publicity sub-council. 5 | Education Sub-Council. If necessary, arrangements are made to form more sub-councils.





Provision is made for the formation of each sub-council with a minimum of 3 members and a maximum of 6 members from the regional council. The members elect a chairman from among them. Zonal officers or officers are made secretaries. A regional advisory committee consisting of members of parliament was formed in each zone.





Victory events





From the beginning of December, different parts of the country gradually became free from enemies. At the same time, the law and order situation in the country is deteriorating. So the government took a decision on December 10 to improve the situation and broadcast it on the radio. Since 13 December, there have been repeated calls on Pakistani forces to surrender. The Pakistani forces announced their surrender on the morning of 16 December. The time of surrender was fixed at 4:31 pm on 16 December. Then two decisions were taken on behalf of the government. First, Colonel Osmani will be on Bangladesh's side at the surrender ceremony (but since he was absent from the head office at the time and could not be contacted immediately Instead, Deputy Chief of Staff Group Captain AK Khandaker was sent as a representative from Bangladesh). Second, to move the head office of the government to Dhaka as soon as possible after the surrender. After the surrender ceremony was completed, government officials gradually returned to the country.













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