The basic single family or group in rural society, usually formed according to the full or partial extended patriarchal family system / discipline (single stove) or family position (home). Sometimes a few single families live in a large unit partially connected, it is called a house . Again at the home level, the patriarch lives in a joint family sequentially in a somewhat sorted or accepted kinship bond based on kinship connection / basis. A significant association that builds society on the basis of mutual benefits, such as religious observances, on a larger scale than close kinship. Social rules and discipline are regulated by local mosques and mullahs. The problems of the society are solved by an informal council consisting of elders (matabbars or sardars). The effective action competition of the village matabbars is a reflection of the social and political context of the village. Some combined houses are called neighborhoods , each neighborhood having a different name. Mouzas are formed by combining some neighborhoods which are considered as the unit of basic revenue and census. Towards the end of the twentieth century, single or multi-storied brick houses (locally known as pakabari ) replaced traditional straw and bamboo huts to bring about a change in the traditional rural environment.
Although farming has traditionally been the most desired occupation, villagers have been encouraging their children to change occupations and secure jobs in the city's densely populated areas since the 1970s. The basis of social honor is measured by higher education, higher pay and guaranteed income instead of long-standing zamindari, nobility, religious devotion. However, this change is not able to change the economic condition of the village. A 1986 survey of household expenditure by the Ministry of Planning found that 47 per cent of rural areas were below the poverty line and 82 percent of them were living in extreme poverty. The number of landless farmers has been steadily increasing, from 25 per cent in 1980 to 40 per cent in 1986.
In 1986, about 16 percent of the population lived in cities, most of which depended on villages and commercial centers. During the 1980s, suburban and city-centric populations continued to grow, resulting in the establishment of upazilas as a measure of administrative decentralization . Externally these urban areas were very dilapidated. Most of the urban areas were deprived of modern amenities and the population of the city was concentrated in the midst of the dilapidated sewerage system of the Daisaras. The main residents of the city are government employees, businessmen, and business people. Most live in single families and a few in extended family. The neighborhood consists of some housesWhere little reliance / coherence develops but no formal leadership is formed. With the exception of a few temporary residents, almost all the residents live permanently in the city and at the same time maintain contact with the resources and families of the village. Most cities have social and sports associations and libraries. Hearts among urban dwellers are much more limited and temporary than in rural society.
Family, household, and kinship
Family and kinship are the basis of social life in Bangladesh. All members of the family who live in the same house share in the same economic, household and social identity. The stove in the general view is one of the elements of the definition of an effective family, the extended family members collectively distribute household resources and collectively control the kitchen. The home today may have multiple functional household items, depending on the intimacy situation of the family. Usually the married child stays in the same house while the father is alive. Although they build separate houses as a single family, their authority is under the control of the father and the wife follows the mother-in-law. The death of a father usually accelerates the separation of adult children from their families. Such separation is usually homeThe structural structure of the family changes slightly, although the family expresses its members differently at different stages of life. The
The patriarchal system is the mainstay of the family structure, but matriarchal communication is also considered important. Married women place special importance on maintaining a relationship with the husband's brother and his family members in post-marital life. All the brothers and sisters often visit the house of the brother who lives in the house of the late father. According to Islamic law , women inherit a share of the father's property and claim a share of the smallest land used by the brothers. Although this demand did not arise much, the patriarchal land was kept under the control of the brothers, leaving the way open for a warm reception in the permanent residence of the brothers.
A woman actually gets the expected respect and security from her husband or in-laws as soon as she becomes a mother. It is the mothers who nurture the boys and fulfill their wishes. At the same time, the girls have to abide by the strict rules most of the time and are involved in the heavy and minor chores of the family from an early age. In most families, the mother-child relationship is most intimate, intimate, and affectionate. The father is a little serious, a person of respect and devotion and the son's wife remains an uninvited visitor for a long time after marriage.
From the Islamic point of view, marriage is more of a civil bond than a religious rule or reform , and between the parties to the negotiating agreement, the interests of the family are more important than the interests of the individual husband and wife. In Bangladesh, although men have some influence or preference in choosing a bride, parents are usually formally married.Organized. In urban middle class families, men mediate their marriages. Only women from a few well-to-do families can be part of their own marriage negotiations. Marriage is usually performed between two families of equal social status, but it is normal for a woman to marry naturally to a man of higher status. In the latter part of the twentieth century, in some cases, economic conditions became more important than family status. Often in the Middle East a well-employed vessel is considered superior to an upper-caste vessel.
Before marriage, there is usually a wide-ranging discussion between the families of both the bride and groom. By varying the position of the financial settlement resolves to marry the social dialogue is a major commitment, which traditionally ansabarera family usually in cash, or bride price ; A promise to pay in part or in full is a blessing which, if invalid, is dissolved by the husband or by showing it as a breach of contract. Like other Muslim countries, according to Islamic law, women receive cash for security reasons after divorce. Some families, however, follow the Hindu custom of giving dowry to the bride .
According to the 1971 census, an estimated 3.4 crore are married, 1.9 crore are married or unmarried, 3 million widows or 3.2 lakh divorced. Although the majority of married men (1 crore) living in 5.7 lakh households live with a single wife, 8-10 percent of them have two or more wives.
Although the age of marriage was set in 1970, child marriage continued to dominate the educated community, and women were the main victims. In 1981, the minimum age for marriage was set at 23.9 for boys and 16.8 for girls. Girls often got married when they were students, before reaching adolescence, and further education had to be done at the in-laws' house. In the context of Bangladesh, divorce among childless couples is on the rise and it was so naturally accepted that in 1970, 1 out of every 6 divorces was childless.
A symbolic life-partner knows very little about each other before marriage. Although marriages often took place between cousins and other distant relatives, they did not get a chance to get to know each other very well due to the separate positions in the men's and women's homes. Ensuring the smooth running of the family was the main responsibility of the marriage system, and it was more important for the new bride to maintain intimate relations with her mother-in-law than with her husband.
In 1967, women's use of the veil (highlighting women's traditional distinctions) in the social environment increased exponentially, and even in seemingly tasteful educational-oriented urban families, women and men maintained separate positions. There was the traditional environment, an adult woman would fully adhere to the veil which begins to be her puberty . While in the home, women will live in their own homes where only male relatives or housekeepers will have access, and a woman will avoid or even respect her father-in-law or husband's older brothers. On the outside of the house, a woman will use the veil as a veil or cover it completely so that the garment is not visible from the outside. In order to maintain the practice of full veil, women must have a combination of both devotion to traditional rules and willingness to apply it in their workplace. In the case of most rural families, it is impossible for women to maintain the full veil with the need for many important tasks, although the practice remains in force. In some areas, for example, women used to stay in a designated "neighborhood" or village without a veil, but used the veil or a separate cloth to get out of their area. In any case, if he met any man outside the family, he would immediately avoid it.
The influence of the separate positions of men and women began to spread among the social groups and they rejected the full screen under the influence of modern education. Although urban women enjoyed more freedom externally from the traditional stream and had the opportunity to choose a professional livelihood, they had the opportunity to enter a social stream separate from their husbands and often made a living in a feminine environment.
The role of women in society
Data on health, nutrition, education, and economic status indicate that until 1980, women in Bangladesh were considered inferior to men. Women were considered loyal to men in all respects, from the rich to the poor, according to the rules and habits of autonomy. Most women were concentrated in their traditional roles and had very limited access to trade, productive work, education, healthcare, and local government. The effects of disadvantaged behavior in this advanced development field were lack of good and bad family, malnutrition and poor health of children and stagnation in education and other national development goals. In fact, extreme poverty plagued women. As long as women's health care, education, and training services are limited, developmental productivity within the female population will remain weak.
Social classification and stratification
In the society of Bangladesh in the 1970s, there was no strict classification except for some Hindu caste discrimination ; Rather it was open-minded, soft and broad without any kind of social institution or structure. Social class, however, was largely work-dependent and had considerable flexibility between different classes. Even the structure of caste discrimination among Hindus was relatively relaxed in Bangladesh because most of the Hindus here are of lower social class.
Apparently, the principle of burial in Islam was the key to the social structure. As in other parts of South Asia, the social structure of Hindu caste discrimination has had little effect on the Muslim-based social culture of Bangladesh. Even the lowest social class Jola (weavers) raised their social status from 1971 onwards. Although clans originated in different structural ways - such as Syed (aristocratic descent) and at the same time respected as Sheikh or Shaikh (and aristocratic descent) - there was no hereditary influence in the Muslim society of Bangladesh. Rather, both urban and rural areas were categorized by neutral financial and political influence.
Traditional Muslim class distinctions were of little importance in Bangladesh. The index of social classification, the exclusion of marriages between upper and lower caste families by birth, went up long ago. Most marriages are based on financial and prestige rather than family differences. Again, many so-called upper class families split up after Bangladesh became independent to use their traditional Urdu language .
Although Hindu society has traditionally accepted formal social class divisions of different castes, the Bangladeshi Hindu Parishad has not taken social class as important. About 75% of the Hindus in Bangladesh belong to the lower social classes, notably the Namasudras (small farmers) and the rest were primarily deprived or untouchable. Some upper class members are middle class or professional classCame under it, but there was no higher Hindu dynasty. The growing participation of Hindus outside the traditional profession in professional needs, the connection and amalgamation of socially and politically diverse professional classes has resulted in class divisions in social consciousness. Although this did not eliminate Hindu classism, it did not play as important a role in Bangladesh as it did in the Hindu-influenced Indian state of West Bengal . Bangladeshi Hindus seem to be part of the mainstream of tradition, keeping their culture and religion separate.