Saturday, 28 November 2020

International recognition of Bangladesh

 

 


The War of Independence of Bangladesh  is a revolutionary freedom struggle of South Asia organized in 1971 which established the People's Republic of Bangladesh. the struggle for independence was the West against the East and the war lasted for nine months. Through the war, the world witnessed a huge atrocity , about one crore people were forced to flee the country and about three million people were martyred. 


The war erupted on March 26, 1971, when the Pakistani military used a military force called Operation Searchlight on the Bengali civilian population, students, intellectuals and military personnel , who demanded that the Pakistani military junta accept Pakistan's first democratic election in 1970 . Where the Eastern team has won, or recognizes East Pakistan and West Pakistan as separate.


Bengali politicians and army officers declared Bangladesh's independence in response to Operation Searchlight . Members of the Bengali military, paramilitary and the general public together formed the Mukti Bahini , which waged guerrilla warfare against the Pakistani military . The Pakistani military, with the help of religious fundamentalists  ( Razakars , Al Badr and Al Shams ), carried out periodic genocides and atrocities on Bengali civilians, especially on nationalists, intellectuals, youth and religious minorities.  The Provisional Government of Bangladesh was formed in Calcutta, West Bengal .


India became embroiled in war on December 3, 1971, when Pakistan launched air strikes in northern India . Occupied on the battlefield , the Pakistani defense soon collapsed. On 16 December, allied forces of Bangladesh and India defeated Pakistan. As a result, this surrender witnessed the largest number of prisoners of war since World War II .


Foreign reaction 

The United Nations 

Although the United Nations passed a resolution condemning human rights abuses during and after Operation Searchlight , they were unable to act politically before the war broke out.


After the declaration of independence by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in March 1971, India launched a global campaign for political, democratic and humanitarian aid to build global public opinion in Bangladesh's independence struggle. The Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi visited different countries of the world to create public awareness against the oppression of Pakistanis on Bengalis . The global focus on the war and the analysis of military action on India's part proved to be important steps after the war.Even after the defeat of Pakistan, the newly independent Bangladesh played an immediate role in recognition.


With India's participation in the war, Pakistan saw certain defeat, and recommended mediation to the United Nations and pressured India to go to a ceasefire. The United Nations Security Council met on 4 December 1971 to discuss the war in South Asia . After lengthy negotiations, on December 6, the United Nations issued an "immediate ceasefire and withdrawal of troops" ordinance. When the majority supported, the Soviet Union vetoed the ordinance twice, and the United Kingdom and France abstained.


On 12 December, Pakistan, seeing its impending defeat, called on the United Nations to resurrect the Security Council. Pakistan's deputy prime minister and foreign minister, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto , rushed to New York City to issue a ceasefire ordinance . The trial lasted for four days. In the meantime the proposal was finalized, the armed forces in East Pakistan had to surrender and the war had to be stopped, and the move remained purely academic. Bhutto, frustrated by the failure of the ordinance, and by the inaction of the United Nations, his voice became muffled and he left the council.


Within a month of Bangladesh's independence, most of the UN member states recognized Bangladesh immediately.  

 


Bhutan 

On December 6, 1971, Bhutan was the first country in the world to recognize the newly independent Bangladesh (India II). In June 1974, the President of Bangladesh Sheikh Mujibur Rahman visited Bhutan to attend the coronation of Jigme Singh Wangchuck , the fourth King of Bhutan .  


The United States and the Soviet Union

The United States provides  assistance to Pakistan, both politically and militarily . The then US President Richard Nixon described the situation as an internal matter of Pakistan and refused to intervene. Nixon's defeat to Pakistan knowing the Bay of Bengal The aircraft carrier USS Enterprise was sent. The warplane arrived at their destination on 11 December 1971.


Recognition of Bangladesh as a Commonwealth country


Bangladesh became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations in 1972 . That is why (on the issue of recognition of Bangladesh) Pakistan resigned from the Commonwealth on 30 January 1972 . Later, however, in 1965, Pakistan rejoined the membership. Pakistan formally recognized Bangladesh on 22 February 1974. Although Pakistan opened its embassy in Bangladesh in 1968. 


List of countries that have first recognised Bangladesh




Country 

Date of recognition

1

Bhutan

6 December 1971 

2

IndiaIndia

6 December 1971

3

East GermanyEast Germany

11 January 1972 

4

Poland

12 January 1972

5

Bulgaria

12 January 1972

6

Burma

13 January 1972

7

Nepal

16 January 1972

8

Barbados

20 January 1972

9

Yugoslavia

22 January 1972

10

Tonga

25 January 1972

11

Soviet Union

24 January 1972

12

Czechoslovakia

26 January 1972

13

Cyprus

26 January 1972

14

Hungary

26 January 1972

15

Ukrainian SSR

24 January 1972 

16

Australia

26 January 1972

17

Fiji

26 January 1972

18

New Zealand

26 January 1972

19

Byelorussian SSR

24 January 1972 

20

Senegal

1 February 1972

21

United Kingdom

4 February 1972

22

West Germany

4 February 1972

23

Finland

4 February 1972

24

Denmark

4 February 1972

25

Sweden

4 February 1972

26

Norway

4 February 1972

27

Iceland

4 February 1972

28

Israel

4 February 1972

29

Japan

8 February 1972

30

Luxembourg

11 February 1972

31

Netherlands

11 February 1972

32

Belgium

11 February 1972

33

Ireland

11 February 1972

34

Italy

12 February 1972

35

France

14 February 1972

36

Canada

14 February 1972

37

Singapore

16 February 1972

38

Mauritius

20 February 1972

39

United States

4 April 1972

40

Pakistan

22 February 1974 

41

China

31 August 1975 



No comments:

Post a Comment

Bangladesh's 4122 Crore Taka housing project for Freedom Fighters - BD News Net

 The  Bangladesh government will build houses for widows and children of indigent freedom fighters, martyrs and late heroic freedom fighters...