The War of Independence of Bangladesh is a revolutionary freedom struggle of South Asia organized in 1971 which established the People's Republic of Bangladesh. the struggle for independence was the West against the East and the war lasted for nine months. Through the war, the world witnessed a huge atrocity , about one crore people were forced to flee the country and about three million people were martyred.
The war erupted on March 26, 1971, when the Pakistani military used a military force called Operation Searchlight on the Bengali civilian population, students, intellectuals and military personnel , who demanded that the Pakistani military junta accept Pakistan's first democratic election in 1970 . Where the Eastern team has won, or recognizes East Pakistan and West Pakistan as separate.
Bengali politicians and army officers declared Bangladesh's independence in response to Operation Searchlight . Members of the Bengali military, paramilitary and the general public together formed the Mukti Bahini , which waged guerrilla warfare against the Pakistani military . The Pakistani military, with the help of religious fundamentalists ( Razakars , Al Badr and Al Shams ), carried out periodic genocides and atrocities on Bengali civilians, especially on nationalists, intellectuals, youth and religious minorities. The Provisional Government of Bangladesh was formed in Calcutta, West Bengal .
India became embroiled in war on December 3, 1971, when Pakistan launched air strikes in northern India . Occupied on the battlefield , the Pakistani defense soon collapsed. On 16 December, allied forces of Bangladesh and India defeated Pakistan. As a result, this surrender witnessed the largest number of prisoners of war since World War II .
The United Nations
Although the United Nations passed a resolution condemning human rights abuses during and after Operation Searchlight , they were unable to act politically before the war broke out.
After the declaration of independence by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in March 1971, India launched a global campaign for political, democratic and humanitarian aid to build global public opinion in Bangladesh's independence struggle. The Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi visited different countries of the world to create public awareness against the oppression of Pakistanis on Bengalis . The global focus on the war and the analysis of military action on India's part proved to be important steps after the war.Even after the defeat of Pakistan, the newly independent Bangladesh played an immediate role in recognition.
With India's participation in the war, Pakistan saw certain defeat, and recommended mediation to the United Nations and pressured India to go to a ceasefire. The United Nations Security Council met on 4 December 1971 to discuss the war in South Asia . After lengthy negotiations, on December 6, the United Nations issued an "immediate ceasefire and withdrawal of troops" ordinance. When the majority supported, the Soviet Union vetoed the ordinance twice, and the United Kingdom and France abstained.
On 12 December, Pakistan, seeing its impending defeat, called on the United Nations to resurrect the Security Council. Pakistan's deputy prime minister and foreign minister, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto , rushed to New York City to issue a ceasefire ordinance . The trial lasted for four days. In the meantime the proposal was finalized, the armed forces in East Pakistan had to surrender and the war had to be stopped, and the move remained purely academic. Bhutto, frustrated by the failure of the ordinance, and by the inaction of the United Nations, his voice became muffled and he left the council.
Within a month of Bangladesh's independence, most of the UN member states recognized Bangladesh immediately.
On December 6, 1971, Bhutan was the first country in the world to recognize the newly independent Bangladesh (India II). In June 1974, the President of Bangladesh Sheikh Mujibur Rahman visited Bhutan to attend the coronation of Jigme Singh Wangchuck , the fourth King of Bhutan .
The United States and the Soviet Union
The United States provides assistance to Pakistan, both politically and militarily . The then US President Richard Nixon described the situation as an internal matter of Pakistan and refused to intervene. Nixon's defeat to Pakistan knowing the Bay of Bengal The aircraft carrier USS Enterprise was sent. The warplane arrived at their destination on 11 December 1971.
Recognition of Bangladesh as a Commonwealth country
Bangladesh became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations in 1972 . That is why (on the issue of recognition of Bangladesh) Pakistan resigned from the Commonwealth on 30 January 1972 . Later, however, in 1965, Pakistan rejoined the membership. Pakistan formally recognized Bangladesh on 22 February 1974. Although Pakistan opened its embassy in Bangladesh in 1968.
List of countries that have first recognised Bangladesh