Bangladesh is a populous and developing country in South Asia . After gaining independence from Pakistan in the 1971 War of Independence, the country emerged on the world map as an independent state. The eastern part of the Indian subcontinent borders the country with the main part of the ancient and historical region, where civilization has been going on for more than four thousand years, even in the Chalcolithic era. The history of this region is closely related to the history of Bengal and the history of India. The early history of the area is the legacy of the Indian Empire, the history of internal conflicts and the conflict between Hindus and Buddhists. After the thirteenth century, when Muslim explorers, such as Turks, Iranians, Mughals, etc. came to this country, Islam gradually became influential. Later Muslim rulers strengthened the process of transformation by building mosques and madrasas.
Bengali origin of the word
The exact origin of the word Bangla or Bangala is unknown. The word Banga probably originated from Bengal , a Dravidian group living in the region around 1000 BC . Other sources make it clear that the word "Bengal" originated from the Austronesian sun god "Bonga". According to the Mahabharata, the Puranas and the Harivansh, King Bali had a Kshetraj son named Banga who established the kingdom of Bengal. The first Bengali word is mentioned in the Nesari inscription of the Rashtrakuta king Govinda III, where Dharmapala is mentioned as the king of Bengal. Sultan Ilyas Shah took the title of "Shah-i-Bangalah" and since then Bengal has been called Bangalah in all Muslim sources.
Archaeological excavations in Bangladesh reveal traces of the NBPW era (800-200 BC) in the Indian subcontinent. The Iron Age culture in the Indian subcontinent began around 600 BC and lasted until 500-300 BC. This period existed between the rise of the 16 great kingdoms or mahajanapadas of northern India and the subsequent rise of the Maurya Empire . The eastern part of ancient India, present-day Bangladesh or the kingdom of ancient Bengal was part of these mahajanapadas, which are thought to have flourished in the sixth century.
Linguistically, the earliest peoples of the region may have spoken Dravidian languages , such as Kurukus, or perhaps Austro-Asiatic languages such as Santal. Later, people of other language families like Tibetan-Burmese settled in Bengal. By the 7th century BC, western Bangladesh became part of the Indo-Aryan civilization as part of Magadha . The Nanda dynasty was the first historical state to unite Bangladesh under Indo-Aryan rule. Later, after the rise of Buddhism, many priests settled here for the spread of religion and erected many pillars like Mahasthangarh .
The Bengalis were mighty sea explorers of ancient India. Not only the Bengali nation, but in ancient times various nations of the eastern part of India, such as Bengalis, Kalingis , Tamils, etc. , used to establish various colonies in Southeast Asia. They also built such a huge civilization in Southeast Asia. This is known as Srivijaya civilization. The history of Vietnam mentions that a man named Lak Long ( Lakshan ?) From a country called Bon-Lang (Bengali) in India went to Vietnam and established a kingdom called "Bon-Lang". There is no doubt that this forest is the Bengal of India. The kingdom of these Bengalis existed till the third century BC. On the other hand, Sri Lanka has been mentioned in the history of the West Country fromA man named Vijay Singh overthrew the local Dravidian kings and established a new kingdom called Singhal (Lion Dynasty). Vijay Singh is considered as the father of the Sinhalese nation. There is also an epic in Sri Lanka about Vijay Singh known as "Mahavamsa".
The Nanda Empire was an unforgettable period in the history of Bengal. In this age Bengal's strength and abundance ascended to the top. During this period Bengal was able to spread its empire over the whole of northern India. Nanda kings were born in Bengal. They captured Magadha (Bihar) from Bengal and united the two kingdoms and established a new empire called Banga-Magadha. In ancient Greek history, Bengal is mentioned as Gangaridai and Magadha as Prasi. In Greek history, this united kingdom is referred to as Gangaridai and Prasi.
Mahapadma Nanda was the greatest emperor of the Nanda dynasty. He conducted extensive military operations all over India. He conquered Koshal ( Uttar Pradesh ), Kuru ( East Punjab ), Matsya ( Rajputana ), Chedi (forested region between Madhya Pradesh and Bihar), Avanti (Madhya Pradesh) etc. Mahapadma prepared a huge army at Digvijayartha. According to the history of the time, there were 200,000 infantry, 20,000 cavalry, 4,000 chariots and 2,000 elephants under Mahapadma. He had 200,000 infantry, 70,000 cavalry, 6,000 chariots and 8,000 elephants.
It is known from "Kathasrit Sagar" that he also conquered a large part of South India . He conquered the two kingdoms of Kalinga and Ashmak in southern India. Ashmak is the name of an ancient kingdom in the eastern part of Maharashtra . It was a famous colony of Aryans in South India. Kalinga is the ancient name of Orissa . It is known from the Hastigumpha inscription of Kalinga that Mahapadma built a huge water system for irrigation in Kalinga. He also took a statue of a Jain Tirthankar from Kalinga to the capital. Mahapadma was able to establish a large empire for the first time in the history of India. He conquered the whole of India and took the title of Ekrat. Following him, the kings of West India became great and the kings of South India became emperors.
After Mahapadma Nanda, his son Dhanananda or Ugrananda came to power . During the reign of wealth, the state witnessed great economic prosperity. Five shrines were built at Pataliputra during the reign of Dhanananda. Dhanananda has been mentioned in various histories of ancient India as a money-lover.
During the Ugrananda or Dhanananda period, the Greek emperor Alexander invaded India. But Ugrananda was ready to face Alexander with a huge army. Plutarch says that after the battle with King Purushottam (Porus), the Macedonian troops became frustrated, and reluctant to enter further into India. They learned that the river Ganges, which was 230 stadia wide and 1000 feet deep, had all its banks completely covered by armed warriors, horses and elephants. The king of Gangaridai and Prussia was waiting for him (Alexander) with 200,000 infantry, 60,000 cavalry, 7,000 chariots and 8,000 elephants.
Mahasthan (Pundranagar) is believed to have been the central region during the reign of the Mauryan Empire. Copperplate inscriptions in the Brahmi script of the third Mauryan emperor Ashoka are found here.
Kautilya says in his Arthashastra (Maurya reign) that Pandora's Kaushalya cloth is as smooth as an emerald gem . It is called Paundraka. It has been mentioned that such garments were produced only in Magadha and Pundra. In this text a type of cloth of Bengal is called "Bangika'' which was of white color. Above all, this book praises the textile industry of Bangladesh.
Early in the Middle Ages
By the sixth century, the vast Gupta Empire, which ruled northern India, had split into several parts. Among these, the kingdoms of Magadha (Bihar) and Malab (Madhya Pradesh) were ruled by two branches of the Gupta dynasty. The other two important states were Maukhari in Uttar Pradesh and Pusyabhuti in Punjab. ShashankaWas a frontier Mahasamanta of Mahasen Gupta, the Gupta emperor of Magadha. After Mahasen Gupta, he seized power in Bengal and established his capital at Karnasubarna in Gaur. Shashanka invaded Orissa in 619 AD and defeated the Shield Bhav dynasty king and captured Orissa. At this time fierce rivalry between different empires for the occupation of North India began. Devgupta, the king of Malabar, defeated King Grahavarman of Maukhari and captured Kanauj. But at the same time Rajyavardhana, the king of Pushyabhuti, attacked Devagupta and defeated him. At this time Shashanka attacked Kanauj. He seized power by defeating and killing Rajyavardhana, the ruler of Kanauj. His brother and heir Harshavardhana to avenge Rajyavardhana's deathFormed a huge force. Shashanka fought with Harshavardhana with all his might. But Harshavardhana was a very strong warrior. After six years of bloody struggle, Shashanka was finally defeated. Harshavardhana captured Gaur, the capital of Bengal. Thus the temporary Gaur Empire of Bengal fell.
The era of the Pala Empire was a glorious era in the history of Bengal. At this time the conquest of Bengal began again. The Pala kings were born in the Barind region of North Bengal . That is why in the Pala inscription Barindra is called Janakbhu or Rajyam Pitram. The kings of the Pala Empire were followers of Buddhism . The Pala kings were first Mahayana Buddhists and later followers of the Tantric branch . Pala dynasty kings of the political center of northern India, Kannauj to capture Rajputana, Gujarat and South India Rastrakutas with a fierce battle was fought. This terrible and tripartite war continued for the next two hundred years.
King Gopal was the founder of the Pala dynasty . He ruled Bengal from 60 AD to 790 AD. Before the arrival of Gopal, Bangladesh was divided into five parts , namely, Anga , Banga , Gaur , Suhm and Samatat . Gopal united all these factions and brought peace and order in Bangladesh. Gopal also occupied Bihar, Orissa and Kamarupa. Gopal then attacked Kanauj, the capital of northern India . He defeated King Vajrayudha of Ayudha dynasty of Kanauj and captured Kanauj. But he was defeated by Batsaraja, the king of Gurjar. Batsaraja was later defeated by Rashtrakuta king Dhruv Dharavarsha. As a result Gopal was able to defend his empire.
Gopal's son Dharmapala (690-610) was a skilled and powerful emperor. He invaded northern India and defeated the Gurjar king Nagavatta and captured Kanauj. He sent huge military expeditions all over North India. It is known from the Khalimpur copper plate that he conquered Madras ( Punjab ), Gandhara ( Khyber Province ), Matsya (Rajasthan Rajputana)), Jadu ( Gujarat ), Avanti ( Madhya Pradesh ) etc. But he did not finally capture these territories. Dharmapala led by General Lausen defeated the Rashtrakuta king and was able to recapture Orissa. This incident is mentioned in the famous epic Dharma Mangal of that time.
Dharmapala's worthy son Devapala (610-650) again conducted his expeditions all over India. He conducted his expeditions as far as Kamboj (Kashmir) in north-east India. Devpal defeated Raja Rambhadra of Gurjar and turned him into a tributary kingdom. He conquered the Vindhya hills and occupied Malab and Gujarat.But these territories were later lost to Mihir Bhoj. Devpal's expedition to the Deccan was a success. Under his direction, his brother Jaipal defeated the Rashtrakuta king Amoghvarsha and recaptured Orissa. Orissa was then permanently ruled by the Pala Empire.
The Pala emperors built many Buddhist monasteries and religious shrines. Vikramshila, Odantapuri and Jagatdal are some of the notable examples of large-scale Mahavihara Pala architecture. The Pala emperors were the first followers of " Mahayana " Buddhism. The Palas later introduced Tantric Buddhism to attract Hindus to Buddhism . Many Hindu deities are given a place in this religion. The Pala emperors declared Bengali as the state language instead of Sanskrit or Pali . Charyapadas, the oldest specimens of Bengali literature, were composed during the reign of the Pala kings . Therefore, the Pala dynasty is often considered the father of Bengali literature.
Vijayasena, the founder of the Sen dynasty , was a feudal lord of South Bengal under the Pala kings in his early life. He later expanded his empire with his own arms and defeated the Varman kings of East Bengal . He defeated the Pala emperor Madanpal in a battle in North Bengal and captured the capital Gaur . He also conquered Tirhut (North Bihar) and Kamrup (West Assam). However, he failed to conquer South Bihar. The Pala kings maintained their existence here with the help of the Gaharbal Empire. Vijayasena was a follower of Shaivism . All the Kayasthas who came to this country from Kannauj, Ayodhya and Haridwar during his time were mainly the ancestors of the Bengali Kayasthas.
Ballal Sen ascended the throne of Bengal after Vijayasena. Ballal Sen identified about 1,000 Brahmins in his kingdom . They were closely associated with the royal family and were accorded high status. These dignitaries are known as aristocrats in the state. Ballal Sen was a talented man. He authored two books, Dansagar and Adbhut Sagar. His unprecedented talent can be identified from these two books. During the time of Ballal Sen , various doctrines like Shaiva , Vaishnavism , Tantric etc. appeared in Bengal . Ballal Sen personally patronized the Tantric school, although his father, Vijayasena, was a Shaivite.
After Ballal Sen, his son Lakshman Sen ascended the throne. Like his father, Lakshman Sen was also a literary and scholarly man. During his time many talented poets appeared in the kingdom. Such as Sharan, Halayudha, Umapati Dhar etc. From a religious point of view, Lakshan Sen was a Vaishnava. Lakshman Sen is mentioned as Paramavaishnava in the copper rule found in Anulia. During the reign of Lakshman Sen, Bakhtiyar Khilji invaded Bengal. At that time Lakshman Sen was staying at a pilgrimage center in Nadia . In 1204, Bakhtiyar Khilji suddenly attacked Nadia for which he was not ready. Lakshman Sen took refuge in East Bengal , the Muslims failed to conquer East Bengal.
Dev Kingdom was a kingdom of the Danyavati dynasty of Arakan in southeastern Bengal. The kingdom stretched from Arakan to Chittagong and its capital was at Chittagong. But under the influence of local Bengalis, the Deva kings became Bengalis and Hindus. The first ruler of this dynasty was Purushottam Dev, who was an ordinary villager (village head) in his early life and later rose to the position of provincial ruler of the south under the Sen emperors. His son Madhusudan Dev I declared independence from the First Sen Empire and officially assumed the title of King. Damodar Dev was a powerful ruler of this dynasty. His reign extended to the present Comilla-Noakhali-Chittagong region.
The next ruler of this dynasty, Dasaratha Dev, was the most powerful ruler of this dynasty. He put an end to the Sen Empire and occupied the whole of East Bengal (Dhaka-Mymensingh-Khulna). He allied himself with Sultan Ghiyasuddin Balban of Delhi, defeated the invader Mughisuddin Tughral and restored the independence of the Hindu Empire of Bengal. On this occasion he took the title of Danuj Mardan Dev. In the history of Ghiyasuddin Balban, he has been called Danuj Roy. The Dev dynasty was able to maintain its independence for some more time. Although nothing special is known about the kings of this period. Eventually the Dev dynasty fell under the attack of Mahmud Shahi Sultan Firoz Shah of Bengal.
Middle Ages and Islamic rule
Islam first appeared in Bengal in the 7th century through Arab Muslim traders and Sufi missionaries. In the twelfth century, the Muslims conquered Bengal and established Islam in the region. In early 1202, Bakhtiyar Khilji, a military commander from the Delhi Sultanate, defeated Bengal and Bihar. At first Bengal was ruled by different tribes of the Turkish nation. Later Bengal was ruled by Arabs, Persians, Afghans, Mughals etc. Bengal entered a new era under Muslim rulers. Because the cities were developed; Palaces, castles, mosques, mausoleums and gardens; Roads and bridges were built; And new trade routes brought prosperity and new cultural life.
Bakhtiyar Khilji invaded Bihar in 1199 AD. He captured Bihar by overthrowing the remnants of the Pala dynasty . Bakhtiyar Khilji then decided to invade Bengal. He attacked the pilgrimage center Nadia in 1204 with a formidable cavalry force of 16 soldiers . Lakshman Sen fled and he took refuge in East Bengal . The Muslims could not occupy East Bengal as they had no navy. The ambitious Bakhtiyar then decided to invade Tibet . In 1206 he invaded Tibet with a large army. And proceeded to the city of Karamattan in Tibet. But due to severe winter and lack of supplies, Bakhtiyar Khilji's expedition finally failed.
After the death of Bakhtiyar Khilji, chaos arose in the empire. Shiran Khilji, one of Bakhtiyar's aides , declared himself the emperor of Bengal. But Mardan Khilji, another claimant to the throne, revolted against Shiran . Shiran defeated and captured Mardan. Mardan Khilji called on the emperor of Delhi, Qutbuddin Aibek, to invade Bengal. Qaymaz Rumi, the commander of Aibek, defeated Rumi Shiran and occupied Bengal, and Mardan Khilji was appointed governor of Bengal. Mardan was initially under the control of Delhi, but he declared independence after the death of Qutbuddin Aibek. When Mardan became increasingly oppressive, the Khilji nobles killed him and nominated Iwaz Khilji as the Sultan of Bengal.
Iwaz Khilji was a skilled and warlike emperor. He formed a navy and with the help of this navy he captured Bengal. He also occupied Bihar, Orissa and Kamrup (West Assam). But Iwaz did not directly annex all these states, he gave these states the status of feudal states. As a result of the expansion of Iwaz's kingdom, Sultan Shamsuddin Iltutmish of Delhi launched a campaign against him in 1225 . Iwaz was defeated in the battle. But when Iltutmish returned to Delhi, Iwaz declared independence again. This time Mahmud, the son of Iltutmish, led the battle, and at the end of the battle Iwaz was defeated and killed.
The Mamluks were a special kind of mercenary army of the Turkish nation. The Mamluks held sway in Delhi at this time and all the governors of Bengal appointed by Delhi were also Mamluks. Tughral Tughral Khan, the Mamluk Sultan of Bengal , declared a revolt against Delhi in 1236 AD. He not only dominated Bengal, but also led an expedition to the west with a large army and brought Bihar and Badaun under his rule. However, on the orders of Tamar Khan, the ruler of Delhi, he sent an army to Bengal. Tughan Khan was defeated and finally accepted the rule of Delhi.
In 1251, the Governor of Bengal, Mughisuddin Yuzbak, declared independence. Yuzbak repulsed an attack from Orissa coming from the south of Bengal . He entered the interior of Orissa and plundered its capital and also got a white elephant. Following in Tughans footsteps, Yuzbak captured Bihar and Awadh . As a result, he became the ruler of a vast empire in eastern India. As long as Yuzbak was alive, the emperor of Delhi could not defeat him. Yuzbak also occupied Assam in the northeast. But he was killed while trying to quell an uprising in Assam.
During the reign of Sultan Ghiyasuddin Balban of Delhi, the Governor of Bengal, Mughisuddin Tughral , declared rebellion. He dominated the whole of Bengal and Bihar and invaded Orissa and annexed it to his empire. Emperor Balban Malik sent Turmati to Bengal with a large force. But he was defeated by Mughisuddin Tughral. This time Balban sent a second expedition under the command of General Shihabuddin. But he too was defeated by Tughral. As a result, in 1280 a large army balban campaign itself was Bengali. Tughral fought with might. But in the end he was defeated and killed in battle.
Mahmud Shahi dynasty
After the death of Sultan Ghiyasuddin Balban, his son Bughra Khan established an independent state in Bengal. He took the title of Mahmud Shah, hence his dynasty is known as Mahmud Shahi dynasty. The emperor of Delhi was Kaikobad, the son of Mahmud Shah . But he became a pawn in the hands of the corrupt minister Nizamuddin. Mahmud Shah set out for Delhi with a large army to rescue his son. Wazir Nizamuddin of Delhi with a large force stopped him on the banks of the river Saryu. However, there was no bloody clash between Bengal and Delhi and an agreement was reached between the two sides. Mahmud Shah with his army in LakhnautiHe returned and reigned in glory. On the other hand, in Delhi, on his orders, Sultan Kaikobad sacked Minister Nizamuddin and made the state safe.
After Mahmud Shah, his son Rukunuddin Kaikaus ascended the throne of Bengal. Alauddin Khilji was the Sultan of Delhi during the reign of Rukunuddin Kaikaus . In 1301 Alauddin Khilji invaded Bengal. Kaikaus was defeated and killed in battle. Khilji installed Firoz Shah, the brother of Kaikaus, as his governor on the throne of Bengal. Feroz Shah was a famous winner. He invaded East Bengal under the direction of Khilji and uprooted the Dev dynasty . As a result, East Bengal came under Muslim rule permanently. It was during his time that the famous Aulia Shah Jalal arrived in Bengal and conquered Sylhet. He gained independence after the death of Alauddin Khilji and died after ruling independently for some time.
After Feroze Shah, his son and successor Bahadur Shah became the ruler of the whole of Bengal. But at that time Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq , the founder of the Tughlaq dynasty of Delhi, went to war in Bangladesh. With the help of his conspiratorial brother Nasiruddin Ibrahim, he attacked the capital Lakhnauti and Bahadur Shah was defeated. Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq divided Bengal into Satgaon, Lakhnauti and Sonargaon and appointed these three divisions into the hands of three separate rulers. But when Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq returned, Bahadur Shah declared independence again. Bahram Khan, the ruler of Satgaon, fought against him and in the end he was defeated and killed in battle.
Ilyas Shahi dynasty
Ilyas Shah was a refugee in Bangladesh from Sijistan in Iran . In his early life he was the advisor of Ali Shah, the Governor of Delhi, who was employed in Bengal. But later he seized power and declared himself as the Sultan of Bengal. Elias Shah occupied Bengal , Bihar and Orissa and established a huge empire in the eastern part of India. He also occupied large parts of Uttar Pradesh and Nepal . As a result, Sultan Feroz Shah Tughlaq of Delhi became terrified. In 1553 he invaded Bengal. Elias Shah lost both Bihar and Orissa but was able to defend the independence of Bengal.
After Ilyas Shah, Sikandar Shah ascended the throne of Bengal. Earlier, Feroze Shah Tughlaq invaded Bengal and failed to capture the province of Bengal. As a result, he attacked Bengal again to take revenge. Feroze Shah laid siege to Bengal for two long years. But in the end Sikandar was defeated by Shah. Sikandar Shah was a devoted patron of literature and architecture. During his time, especially the architectural and building industries flourished. His immortal feat is to build the famous Adina Mosque . This mosque was the largest mosque in India at that time (larger than Delhi).
After Sikandar Shah, Azam Shah ascended the throne. His reign was peaceful and there were no wars. During his time, Chinese Ambassador Ma Huan arrived in Bangladesh. He invited the famous Iranian poet Hafiz to come to Bengal. He also left but died on the way. The Ilias Shahi Sultans wanted to empower the Hindus of Bengal . A large number of Hindus were recruited into the army. And Hindus were appointed as feudal lords in different regions. But the Hindus became very powerful. And finally seized power and put an end to the Elias Shahi dynasty of Bengal.
Raja Ganesha was a zamindar of Bhaturia area of Dinajpur in his early life . He encouraged Bayazid Shah, an emir of Bengal, to seize power by assassinating the last sultan of the Ilyas Shahi dynasty. He later removed Bayazid Shah and seized power himself. Ganesha invented a new puja called Satyapir in Bangladesh. Satyapir was simultaneously known as the pir of Muslim pir and Hindu deity. Before Ganesha, the Hindus of Bengal were converting to Islam on a large scale under the influence of Muslim rulers. To prevent this conversion, he introduced the practice of this new Satyapi.
King Ganesha appointed Mahendradev as the next king instead of his son Jitendradev. Jitendradev became very upset. He converted to Islam and, with the help of Muslim emirs, ascended the throne under the name of Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah . Muhammad Shah was a famous conqueror. He invaded the neighboring state of Jaunpur . And snatched the province of Bihar from them. During the reign of Muhammad Shah, the Arakanese king Meng Ti Moon prayed to Muhammad Shah for help to save him from Burma , and Muhammad Shah rescued him. From then on Arakan became a feudal state of Bengal.
After the death of Muhammad Shah, his son and successor Ahmad Shah ascended the throne of Bengal. Historians' views on him are misleading. According to the angel, he followed in the footsteps of his great father and wholeheartedly upheld the ideal of righteousness. On the other hand, Golam Hossain said, he was oppressive and bloodthirsty. He bled for no reason and brutally tortured helpless men and women. However, he was defeated near Jaunpur. And lost the province of Bihar. Two slaves, Sadi Khan and Nasir Khan, who held his noble position, killed him and seized the throne of Bengal.
Next Ilyas Shahi dynasty
A descendant of the Ilias Shahi dynasty named Mahmud Shah seized power in Bengal by removing the ruling emirs named Sadi Khan and Nasir Khan . As a result, the Elias Shahi dynasty was re-established in Bengal. During the reign of Sultan Mahmud Shah, the building and architectural industry of Bengal flourished. He built different types of buildings in different parts of Bengal and decorated them. Notable among these buildings were the sixty-domed mosque at Bagerhat , the Binat Bibi Mosque at Dhaka, and the Baishgaji wall at Gaur. For this reason, many historians refer to his period as the Augustan period.
After the death of Mahmud Shah, his worthy son Barbak Shah ascended the throne of Bengal. Barbak Shah defeated Jaunpur and captured Bihar and appointed one of his Hindu generals named Kedar Roy as the governor of the region. Ismail Ghazi, a general of Barbak Shah , defeated the king of Assam and captured Kamrup (western Assam). During the reign of Barbak Shah, a large number of Abyssinian slaves arrived in Bangladesh. Barbak Shah appointed many of them to military and civilian positions. These Abyssinians later became a threat to the empire.
Sultan Yusuf Shah was a generous, just and pious ruler. He ruled according to Islamic law. He used to call wise men, scholars and judges in the court. The next Sultan Fateh Shah was also a kind, hardworking and powerful emperor. He ruled the state with justice and fairness. In his time the Abyssinian slaves became extremely powerful. He was about to break up this Abyssinian army. As a result, the Abyssinian army revolted and killed him and seized control of Bengal. This led to the downfall of the Ilias Shahi dynasty of Bengal.
Husain Shahi dynasty
Sultan Alauddin Husain Shah removed the usurping Abyssinian rulers and seized power in Bengal. He was a refugee who came to Bangladesh from Yemen, an Arab country, in his early life . Husain Shah conquered the frontier states of Bengal such as Kamrup (West Assam), Trihut (North Bihar ) and Chittagong (from Arakan). However, he failed to conquer southern Bihar because the emperor of Delhi, Sikandar Lodi, had occupied the region before him. Literature and architecture flourished during the reign of Husain Shah. He was a symbol of Hindu-Muslim brotherhood. Many historians have termed his era as the golden age of Bengal.
After Hussain Shah, his son Nusrat Shah ascended the throne of Bengal. Like his father, he was a patron of science and art. The development of literature and architecture during his father's tenure continued during his time. During the reign of Nasrat Shah, the Afghan rule in India came to an end and the Mughal rule came to an end . A large number of Afghan emirs fled and came to Bangladesh. Nasrat Shah united with Emperor Mahmud Lodi and Jalal Khan and advanced to resist the Mughal invasion. But the Allies were defeated in the battle of Ghagra . Nasrat Shah defended the independence of Bengal by concluding a treaty with Babar.
After Nasrat Shah, his son Firoz Shah ascended the throne of Bengal. But his cousin Mahmud Shah killed him and came to power. This caused dissatisfaction in the royal family. Makhdum Alam, the ruler of Tirhut, declared independence. But Mahmud Shah was able to defeat him. At this time Jalal Khan, the ruler of Bihar , became impatient with the rule of his guardian Sher Khan and called on Mahmud Shah to attack Bihar. Mahmud Shah attacked Bihar but he was defeated. Then in 1536 Sher Shah captured Gaur , the capital of Bengal . As a result, the Husain Shahi dynasty of Bengal fell.
The Pakhtuns were refugees from Afghanistan and they were also known as Pathans. The Pakhtuns were the rulers of India and they established a powerful dynasty in India called the Lodi dynasty. They were later defeated by the Mughals in the Battle of Panipat and spread to different parts of India.
Sher Shah Suri, the founder of the Suri dynasty , was a small jagirdar in the Sasaram region of Bihar in his early life . Later, with his talent, he was able to attract the attention of Bihar Khan, the ruler of Bihar, and was appointed as the Deputy Administrator of Bihar. When Sher Shah advanced against Mahmud Shah , the ruler of Bengal, in 1536, Mahmud Shah ceded the territory from Kiul to Sikrigli to Sher Shah. In 1538, Sher Shah invaded Bengal for the second time and this time he defeated Emperor Mahmud Shah and occupied Bengal. Sher Shah declared himself emperor of Bengal and held the title of Fariduddin Sher Shah.
When Sher Shah became the ruler of Bengal and Bihar, the Mughal emperor Humayun invaded Bengal by occupying Chunar. Sher Shah was not involved in the front left Bangladesh cunning and indirectly Varanasi , rotasa and jaunapuria captured Kanauj proceeded towards. Agra When Humayun journey boxers close causeway at Sher Shah defeated him miserably. On 16 May 1540, Sher Shah defeated Humayun at the battle of Bilgram in Kannauj . This established the sovereignty of the Suri dynasty in the Indian subcontinent. Sher Shah was the only Muslim emperor of Bengal who was able to establish an empire across northern India.
After Sher Shah's death, the generals of the state nominated Islam Shah instead of his eldest son Adil Khan , as Islam Shah displayed greater military prowess as a prince. The elder brother Adil Khan declared rebellion against Islam Shah. Adil Khan marched towards Agra with his army , but was defeated by Islam Shah. During the reign of Islam Shah, the Mughal emperor Humayun prayed to him for political asylum. But he rejected the application. The reign of Islam Shah was quite peaceful and no war broke out at that time.
After the death of Islam Shah, chaos arose in the Suri Empire. After Islam Shah, his son Firoz Shah ascended the throne. But he was soon removed by Adil Shah Suri (this Adil Shah is different from the previous Adil Shah). Adil Shah was later defeated by another claimant of the Suri dynasty, Ibrahim Shah Suri , and he occupied Delhi and Agra. Ibrahim Shah was again defeated by Sikandar Shah Suri and Sikandar Shah declared himself the emperor of India. Thus the Syrian Empire was overthrown in a fratricidal war and eventually plunged into ruin.
In 1574, Taj Khan Karrani defeated the weak Sultan of Bengal, Ghiyasuddin, and seized the throne. Taj Khan was a loyal follower of the Suri emperor Islam Shah of Delhi . But after that when Adil Shah seized the throne unethically, Taj Khan fled to Bengal and from here he went to war with Adil Shah. Here he took up service under Bahadur Shah and under his leadership engaged in war against Adil Shah. Taj Khan firmly planted the seeds of his power in the soil of Bengal. He later defeated Sultan Ghiyasuddin and seized the throne of Bengal.
After Taj Khan, his brother Sulaiman Khan Karrani became the masnad of Bengal. After the establishment of the Mughal Empire by Humayun in Delhi , groups of Afghan immigrants came and settled in Bengal. As a result, Solomon's dominance gradually increased. Mukund Harichandan, the emperor of Orissa , had a feud with Sulaiman . The reason for the dispute was the granting of asylum to Ibrahim Suri, one of the claimants to the throne of Bengal . In 157 AD, Sulayman sent his son Bayazid Khan and his general Kalapahar to Orissa with a large army. King Harichandan was defeated by the Muslim forces. All Orissa, including Puri , came under the Karrani kingdom.
Sultan Dawood Khan Karrani was a more independent and aggressive man than Sulaiman Khan. The Mughal emperor Akbar sent his general Munim Khan to invade Bengal. But the Mughal general was defeated. In 1574, Emperor Akbar himself laid siege to Patna . As a result Dawood Khan was defeated. In 157, the Mughal and Bengali armies engaged in a final battle in the desert of Rajmahal . Early in the war the Bengali forces were victorious. But later, when General Katlu Khan and Vikramaditya betrayed, they were defeated. As a result , the whole of eastern India , including Bengal , Bihar and Orissa , fell to the Mughal Empire.
Bengal became a part of the Mughal Empire during the reign of Emperor Akbar and Dhaka became the capital of the Mughal province of Bengal. At that time Bengal was called Subah Bangla . The various subadars of Bengal played important roles in various political and economic spheres of Bengal and became known as important figures in the history of Bengal. Among them were important subadars Islam Khan, Mir Jumla, Shaista Khan and others.
Islam Khan was appointed subaddar of Bengal in 1606 during the reign of the Mughal emperor Jahangir . He ruled Bengal from the capital Dhaka , which was renamed Jahangir Nagar. His main job was to control the rebel kings, the Baro-Bhuiyans , the zamindars and the Afghan leaders. He fought with Musa Khan, the leader of the Bara Bhuiyans, and was defeated in late 1611.  Islam Khan defeated Pratapaditya of Jessore , Ramchandra of Baklar and Ananta Manikya of Bhuluya kingdom. He then fought with the kingdoms of Koch Bihar , Koch Hajo and Kachar , thus dominating the whole of Bengal except Chittagong.
Mir Joomla was a famous subedar of Bengal. He started his career as a diamond trader in Golconda in his early life. It was at this time that he became the owner of the famous diamond piece called Kohinoor . He later gifted the diamond to Emperor Shah Jahan . During his time Mughal expeditions were sent to Cooch Behar (West Assam) and Assam (East Assam). When the Mughal forces entered Koch Bihar after crossing the deep jungle, Raja Prannath fled the capital in fear. After the capture of Koch Bihar, Mir Jumla led an expedition to Assam. The Mughal forces easily occupied the border towns of Kamata, Goalpara , Gohati etc. In the final battle, the capital Jhargaon was captured and King Jayadhwaj Narayan surrendered.
In 183 Shaista Khan was appointed subaddar of Bengal. He was the longest governor of Bengal. During his time the happiness and peace of Bengal reached its peak. It is said that at that time eight manas of rice could be obtained for money. Shaista Khan's famous feat was the recapture of Chittagong from Arakanese pirates . In 175 Shaista Khan appointed his son Buzurg Umed Khan as his commander and sent troops to Arakan. In the battle of Kathalia which took place on 23 and 24 January 18, the Mughal army was completely destroyed. Later they formed a resistance on the Karnafuli river and were defeated in front of the cannons of the Mughal navy. Mughal domination was re-established in Chittagong. Shaista Khan renamed Islamabad. After capturing Chittagong, innumerable men and women captured by the Maghs were released.
Murshid Quli Khan declared the independence of Subah Bengal after the fall of the Mughal Empire in 1617 AD . He shifted the capital to Maksudabad which is named after him in Murshidabad . He was a pious, just and pragmatic ruler. He ruled the country strictly according to Islamic law . He conducted his own trials twice a week. During his time there was a great expansion of trade and commerce in the country. Bengal became an important trading center of the Turkish, Persian, Majapahit, English, French and other nations. During his time in Bengal Hooghly is a famous international port.
After Murshid Quli Khan, his son-in-law Sujauddin Khan became the Nawab of Bengal. He invaded Tripura and Tripura became a tributary state of Bengal. He suppressed the revolt of Badiuzzaman, the ruler of Birbhum . He strictly stopped the practice of knocking on European merchants and tax evasion. In his time English , French and Portuguese merchants could not evade any duty. In addition, the Nawab always had to be satisfied with the gifts of the European merchants. The principal of the English factory at Kasimbazar gave a reward of three lakh rupees to appease the Nawab.
During the reign of Nawab Alivardi Khan there was political chaos in Bengal. During his time the Marathas invaded Bengal. But Alivardi Khan was a famous Mahabir. He fought with the Marathas for ten long years. And was able to defend the independence of Bengal. However, he was forced to hand over the province of Orissa to the Marathas.  After Nawab Alivardi Khan, Siraj-ud-Daulah became the Nawab of Bengal. He went to war against the English. At first he defeated the British at the battle of Calcutta, but in the end he was defeated by the British at the battle of Palashi . As a result, the Nawabi Empire of Bengal collapsed.
European traders came to Bengal from the end of the fifteenth century. Gradually their influence continues to grow. In 1757 , the British East India Company seized control of Bengal by winning the battle of Palashi . After the Sepoy Revolution of 1857, the rule of Bengal came under the direct control of the British Empire from the Company. A viceroy under the control of the British king administered the administration. During colonial rule, severe famines occurred in the Indian subcontinent many times. Of these , an estimated 3 million people died in the famine of 180 AD, known as the Manvantar of the Seventy-Six .
The partition of Bengal from 1905 to 1911 resulted in the formation of a new province with East Bengal and Assam, with Dhaka as its capital . However, the partition of Bengal was canceled in 1911 due to the extreme opposition of Calcutta-centric politicians and intellectuals. During the partition of the Indian subcontinent in 1947, the province of Bengal was again divided on the basis of religion. Hindu-majority West Bengal is part of India, while Muslim-majority East Bengal is part of Pakistan. In 1954, East Bengal was renamed East Pakistan .
Pakistan Period (1947-1971)
In 1947, British India was divided into two independent states, India and Pakistan. Pakistan's borders were marked on the basis of Muslim predominance, making it inevitable on the map of Pakistan to have two separate territories, one East Pakistan and the other West Pakistan . East Pakistan was formed mainly with East Bengal which is now Bangladesh. The history of East Pakistan is basically a history of oppression and exploitation at the hands of the West Pakistani rulers who had military rule from 1956 to 1971 on the other side.
The zamindar system was abolished under land reform in 1950. But despite the economic and demographic importance of East Pakistan, the Pakistani government and army were under the full control of the West Pakistanis. The language movement of 1952 was the first sign of conflict between the two parts of Pakistan.Over the next decade, protests by the central government over economic and cultural issues began to take root in the minds of ordinary people in East Pakistan.
The first step against Pakistani influence and dictatorship was the establishment of the Awami Muslim League under the leadership of Maulana Bhasani . The party was founded in 1949. The victory in the 1954 United Front elections and the formation of the Coalition Opposition (COP) with the aim of defeating Pakistan's military administrator General Ayub Khan in the 1975 presidential election was a milestone in the movement led by East Pakistani politicians against Pakistani military rule. The question of the independence of East Pakistan has been raised since the mid-1950s.
Freedom of movement
The language movement was a cultural movement in the history of East Bengal aimed at gaining recognition of Bengali as the state language of the state of Pakistan . This movement was conducted to ensure the use of Bengali language in the official activities of Pakistan. Mufti Nadimul Kamar Ahmed led the movement. The partition of India in 1947 led to the formation of the state of Pakistan; Its two regions, East Pakistan and West Pakistan , maintained wide cultural, geographical and linguistic differences. This difference later had a profound effect on the political life of East Pakistan and West Pakistan.
On 23 February 1947, the government of Pakistan declared Urdu as the only national language of the state , which led to widespread protests among the Bengali-speaking people of East Pakistan. With the enactment of the new law, communal tensions increased and in the face of mass opposition, the government declared all kinds of mass rallies and protests illegal. Students of Dhaka University and other political activists disobeyed this law and organized a huge movement on 21 February 1952. Police in riot gear stormed a rally on Friday, removing hundreds of protesters by truck.
Following the killings, widespread protests and movements spread across the country. This movement was led by the Awami Muslim League which was later renamed the Awami League . After years of conflict, the central government finally conceded defeat and in 1956 recognized Bengali as the state language. On November 17, 1999, UNESCO officially declared February 21 as International Mother Language Day . In Bangladesh, February 21 is considered as the National Day of Language Movement . The Shaheed Minar Memorial was erected in front of Dhaka Medical College in memory of the movement and its martyrs.
Gradually huge differences developed between the two parts of Pakistan. The population of West Pakistan was a small part of the total population, but they were sharers in the largest share of revenue allocation, industrial development, agrarian reform and civic projects. Pakistan's military and civilian services were dominated by the Punjabi nation . The Bengalis had only one regiment in the Pakistan army . Many Bengali Pakistanis did not feel the innate enthusiasm for the Kashmir issue because they thought it would put East Pakistan at greater risk and ultimately threaten its very existence.
In early 1986, a conspiracy case was filed against Sheikh Mujib and 34 other leaders in Agartala . The accused were planning to liberate East Pakistan with the help of India. However, the trial resulted in a mass movement calling for the release of all prisoners. On 15 February 1969, Zahurul Haque, a rebel in prison, was brutally shot dead. As a result, the movement gained momentum and the government was forced to withdraw the case on 22 February. The mass movement later took the form of the mass uprising of '69 .
On 25 March 1969, Ayub Khan handed over state power to General Yahya Khan . Later, the new president suspended all political activities in the country. However a number of students maintain the movement with secrecy. A new party called 'February 15 Bahini' was formed under the leadership of Sirajul Alam Khan and Kazi Aref Ahmed. Later in 1969, Yahya Khan announced a new election date for October 5, 1970. Successful leadership against the economic and cultural domination of the West made the Awami League the most powerful political party in East Pakistan.
Preparation of independence
The Awami League won most of the seats in the National Assembly of Pakistan in the 1970-71 elections and the government of Pakistan began negotiations with the Awami League on constitutional issues. Power was divided between the central government and the provinces, as well as a national government led by the Awami League. However, on March 1, 1971, Pakistani President Yahya Khan adjourned the session of the National Assembly of East Pakistan, which sparked widespread protests in East Pakistan. On 2 March 1971, the new national flag of Bangladesh was hoisted at the behest of ASM Abdur Rab , a student leader of the Swadhin Bangla Nucleus .
The agitating student leaders demanded that Sheikh Mujibur Rahman declare the independence of Bangladesh immediately, but Mujibur Rahman refused to agree to this demand. Instead, he decided to announce his next move at a public meeting on March 8. On March 3, student leader Shahjahan Siraj read out the Declaration of Independence in front of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib at a public meeting at Paltan Maidan on the instructions of Swadhin Bangla Nucleus . At a public meeting at Suhrawardy Udyan on 7 March, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman encouraged the general public about the progress of the ongoing independence movement.
In his March 7th speech, Awami League President and later Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman called on the people of East Pakistan to be ready for an impending war against Pakistani occupation. Although he did not directly mention independence, as the discussion was still going on, he urged his audience to be fully prepared for an all-out war. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's speech on March 7 is considered to be the key to the war of independence, and the famous quote of this speech was:
This time the struggle is for our freedom, this time the struggle is for our liberation.
War of independence
The military operation was launched by the Pakistan Army in the first half of March 26. Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was arrested and the political leaders became divided. Before being arrested by the Pakistani army, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman sent a signed note marking the Declaration of Independence of Bangladesh . The note was transmitted by a radio transmitter of the then East Pakistan Rifles. Bangladeshi Army officer Major Ziaur Rahman occupied the Kalurghat radio station and read out the Declaration of Independence on the evening of 26 March.
For military purposes, Bangladesh was divided into 11 sectors under 11 commanders. In addition to these regional forces, three more special forces were formed to fight: the Z Force , the S Force and the K Force . The names of these three forces are derived from the first letters of the names of the commanders of those forces. Most of the weapons, including training and arms and ammunition, were provided by the Meherpur government, which was supported by India. During the war between the Pakistan Army and the Bengal Liberation Army , an estimated one crore Bengalis, mainly Hindus, took refuge in the Indian states of Assam, Tripura and West Bengal.
India had sympathy for East Pakistan and on 3 December 1971, India took part in the war on behalf of the Bangladeshis. This led to a short and devastating two-week war between India and Pakistan. On December 16, 1971, Lieutenant General A.A.K. Niazi and the Pakistani generals in East Pakistan surrendered to the allied forces of India and Bangladesh. At the time of surrender, only a few countries granted diplomatic recognition to the new state. After World War II , more than 90,000 Pakistani soldiers surrendered in the history of the world.
People's Republic of Bangladesh
The interim government was the first government in the history of Bangladesh. This government proclaimed the country's independence, enacted the constitution in the interim, and established the principles of equality, human rights, and social justice as fundamental principles. Its prime minister was Tajuddin Ahmed and its military chief was MAG Osmani. Other important members were Syed Nazrul Islam and Muhammad Mansur Ali. This government is made up of members of the newly formed Bangladesh Civil Service and defectors from the Civil Service of Pakistan. It was also an efficient diplomatic organization led by Abu Saeed Chowdhury, Humayun Rashid Chowdhury and Rehman Sobhan. The Bangladesh Army was divided into eleven sector commanders; Notable among them were Ziaur Rahman, Khaled Mosharraf, K.M. Shafiullah etc. India wholeheartedly provided all kinds of political, economic and military support for the interim government. The capital of this exiled government was Calcutta . In December 1971, India intervened within two weeks of the final battle and secured the surrender of the Pak army.
Sheikh Mujib Administration
The leftist party Awami League , which won Pakistan's general election in 1970, formed the first government in Bangladesh after independence. Awami League leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman became the second Prime Minister of Bangladesh on January 1, 1972 and was widely regarded as the hero of the country's independence and the father of the nation. The formation of Bengali nationalism during his reign was largely based on secularism and Bengali nationalism. The constitution written by Kamal Hossain in 1972 basically formed a liberal democratic parliamentary republic , on which socialism had some influence.
At the international level, Mujib and Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi signed the 25-year Indo-Bangladeshi Friendship, Cooperation and Peace Agreement. Mujib was invited to Washington DC and Moscow to hold talks with American and Soviet leaders. In the 1974 Delhi Agreement, Bangladesh, India and Pakistan pledged to work for regional stability and peace. The agreement paved the way for the repatriation of Bengali officials and their families stranded in Pakistan. It also paved the way for the restoration of diplomatic relations between Dhaka and Islamabad.
Locally, authoritarian regimes grew under Mujib . The reactionary socialist party, the Jasad, had a revolt, as well as a movement of merchant groups and conservative forces, who thought that the Awami League took the profits of the entire liberation movement exclusively. He declared a three-month state of emergency in 1984 to quell the protests. He formed the National Guard , which was accused of human rights abuses . Many in the Bangladesh Army were also dissatisfied with the National Guard.
Military coups and presidential rule
The first martial law and Zia Administration
General Ziaur Rahman assumed the office of President and CMLA on 21 April 1986 from Justice Sayem . After the June 197 presidential election, Zia formed a political party, the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) , to democratize his presidency and political ambitions . Emphasizing on the indigenous Muslim tradition, Zia highlighted the practice of a Bangladeshi nationalist concept. Parliamentary elections were held in 1979, where the BNP won a landslide victory and the Awami League became the main opposition party.
President Zia re-established the free market economy in the constitution , redefined socialism as "economic and social justice" and formulated a foreign policy that emphasized cooperation with Muslim-majority countries and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation . Under President Zia, the country's economic and industrialization initiatives grew rapidly. The government created the country's first export processing zones, ran a popular food program, decentralized farms, and encouraged private sector development.
Zia faced twenty-one coups against his government, one of which was carried out by the air force. His one-time assistant, Colonel Abu Taher, was arrested for treason and executed. Many of his other rivals in the armed forces have seen similar consequences. However, Ziaur Rahman was assassinated in 1971 in an attempt to overthrow him. Zia was killed by soldiers loyal to Major General Abul Manzur when they raided his official residence in Chittagong on 30 May 1981. Army Chief Lieutenant General Hussein Muhammad Ershad suppressed the revolt.
After Ziaur Rahman, Vice President Abdus Sattar was elected President . Abdus Sattar was elected by the people during the presidential election, although his rival Kamal Hossain accused him of rigging. Mirza Nurul Huda reshuffled Sattar's presidency cabinet and resigned as vice-president due to internal clashes within the ruling BNP .A National Security Council in the wake of insurgency in northeastern India and Muslim violence in BurmaIs formed. Abdus Sattar suffers from health problems due to old age. The 1972 military coup ousted President Sattar and his civilian government. The reasons behind the military coup in Bangladesh have been cited as food crisis, corruption and economic abuse.
The second martial law and said the administration
Sattar was sacked by Chief Justice AFM Ahsanuddin Chowdhury . Lieutenant General Hussein Muhammad Ershad declared martial law and became the chief martial law administrator. He served as president of the cabinet and appointed chiefs of the navy and air force as deputy martial law administrators. Under Ershad's martial law regime, political oppression increased to a great extent. However, the government formulated a coherent framework for administrative reform. Eighteen districts of the country are divided into 70 districts. The Upazila system was also introduced in the country.
Ershad further strengthened Bangladesh's foreign policy in favor of the anti- Soviet alliance. In 1983, Ershad officially became the President. Its main activities were mainly state-owned economies (up to 70% of industries were state-owned) and encouraging private investment in heavy industries, including light production, raw materials and newspapers. Foreign companies were invited to invest in Bangladeshi industries and strict and protective measures were taken to protect production. The death penalty was enacted for corruption and political movements, and all political parties and trade unions were banned.
Ershad dissolved parliament and held new elections in March 1986. All major opposition parties rejected the election, claiming that the government had failed to hold free and fair elections. The ruling Jatiya Party won 251 out of 300 seats. In June 1986, Parliament passed thousands of bills, a controversial amendment requiring Islam to be the state religion of Bangladesh and the formation of high court benches in cities outside Dhaka. Although Islam remains the state religion, the decentralization provision of the High Court in cities outside Dhaka is prohibited by the Supreme Court judgment.
Democratic governance and the current era
The first government (1990-1991)
Ershad was forced to resign under pressure from the military and the international community. The pro - democracy movement led by Khaleda Zia and Sheikh Hasina covered the entire country and was attended by people from both the middle and upper classes. Chief Justice Shahabuddin Ahmed was sworn in as acting president and formed the country's first caretaker government . Shahabuddin arrested Ershad and was able to hold a free and fair election in 1991.
Khaleda Administration (1991-1996)
With the center-right BNP winning a majority of seats and the Islamist party forming a government in support of Jamaat-e-Islami , Ziaur Rahman's widow, Khaleda Zia, is made prime minister. Former president Ershad, the founder of the Jatiya Party, was jailed on corruption charges. Khaleda Zia was the first woman Prime Minister in the history of Bangladesh. By further amending the constitution, the parliamentarians collectively reconstructed a parliamentary system and Bangladesh returned to the system of government ruled by the Prime Minister in accordance with the basic constitution of 1972.
Finance Minister Saifur Rahman embarked on a series of liberal economic reforms, setting an example in South Asia and being seen as a model in India , Pakistan and Sri Lanka . A parliamentary by-election was held in March 1994, with the opposition claiming that the government had come to power illegally. The entire opposition boycotted parliament indefinitely. The opposition also demanded that Khaleda Zia's government resign, and they repeatedly called for a general strike under a caretaker government.
Attempts to mediate the dispute with the help of the Commonwealth Secretariat failed. In December 1994, when another compromise failed, the opposition resigned from parliament. They then staged processions, demonstrations and strikes to force the government to resign. The opposition Awami League, led by Sheikh Hasina, has vowed to boycott the February 15, 1996 national elections. Following the escalation of political unrest in March 1996, parliament amended a constitution, allowing a neutral caretaker government to take power and allow new parliamentary elections to take place.
The caretaker government (1996)
Chief Justice Muhammad Habibur Rahman was inaugurated as the first Chief Adviser under the country's constitutional caretaker government. At this point, President Abdur Rahman Biswas fired Army Chief Lieutenant General Abu Saleh Mohammad Nasim for political activities, which led to a sudden coup d'etat within the army. Dismissed Army Chief Nasim instructed his loyal forces to go to Dhaka with troops from Bogra, Mymensingh and Jessore.
However, the military commander in Savar sided with the country's president and deployed tanks on highways in and around the capital, shutting down ferries as part of an operation to quell the coup. Later, Lt. Gen. Nasim was arrested in Dhaka Cantonment. The Chief Adviser successfully held free and fair elections on June 12, 1996. The Awami League won 147 seats in Parliament and emerged as the single largest party. The BNP won 116 seats and the Jatiya Party 32 seats.
Hasina Administration (1996-2001)
In June 1996, Sheikh Hasina formed a government called the "Government of National Consensus", which included a minister from the Jatiya Party and a minister from the Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal ( JSD ).The Jatiya Party did not enter into any formal alliance and party president HM Ershad withdrew his support from the League government in September 1996. In the 1996 parliamentary elections, more than 10 members were elected from only three parties: the Awami League, the BNP and the Jatiya Party. Jatiya Party chairman Ershad was released on bail in January 1996.
According to international and domestic election observers, the June 1996 elections were free and fair and the BNP finally decided to join the new parliament. The Hasina administration achieved milestones in environmental and inter-ethnic agreements. These are the Ganges water sharing agreement with India and the peace agreement with the ethnic rebels in the CHT . In 1996, Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina organized a rare and unprecedented tripartite conference in Dhaka. Pakistan's Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif , II. The Prime Minister of India I. K. Gujral and 3. US President Bill Clinton .
In June 1999, the BNP and other opposition parties stopped appearing in Parliament again. From the "six-day" strike in 1996 to the "26-day" strike in 1999; A large number of strikes were called by the opposition. The four-party opposition coalition, formed in early 1999, declared that elections would not be held until effective action was taken by government leaders to eliminate electoral inequality. The government did not take this step and as a result the BNP subsequently boycotted the municipal council elections in February 1999, several parliamentary by-elections and the 2000 Chittagong City Corporation elections.
Third caretaker government (2001)
The caretaker government, led by Chief Adviser Latifur Rahman, has been successful in curbing violence. Parliamentary general elections were successfully held on October 1, 2001. The BNP-led coalition won a landslide victory in the election, which included the Jamaat-e-Islami and the Islamic Unity Alliance . BNP won 193 seats and Jamaat won 17 seats.
Khaleda Administration (2001-2006)
Despite Sheikh Hasina's promise in August 2001 and the Election Inspector General's declaration for free and fair elections, Sheikh Hasina condemned the last election and boycotted Parliament. He led his party to parliament in 2002 , but the Awami League again protested the biased role of a state minister and parliamentary speaker in June 2003, as well as insulting remarks.In June 2004, the Awami League returned to Parliament despite their demands not being met. They were present in Parliament irregularly before announcing an overall boycott during the 2005 budget session.
Khaleda Zia's administration is characterized by improved economic growth as well as allegations of corruption and a growing clash between the country's secular and conservative forces. In the American diplomatic media released by WikiLeaks , his son Tariq Rahman is described as "famous for his secrecy and for his frequent bribes in government procurement and political appointments."After the overthrow of the Taliban in Afghanistan , Bangladesh reacted quickly to relief efforts, with BRAC becoming the largest non-combatant development agency in the country.
A series of high-profile assassins threatened to kill Awami League-led opposition leaders. In 2004, former Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina narrowly escaped a grenade attack in Dhaka. In 2005, Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Bangladesh carried out several terrorist attacks.The League accused the BNP and Jamaat of being involved in the rise of militancy . Relations with India have taken a definite shape on the basis of reports that Indian northeastern rebels have been allowed to use Bangladeshi territory. Khaleda Zia expressed strategic partnership with China and signed a defense agreement with Beijing.
Fourth caretaker government (2006-2007)
A major political crisis erupted after the BNP's term expired, as the Awami League-led coalition demanded a neutral candidate to be its chief adviser. The country was crippled by weeks of strikes, demonstrations and blockades. President Iajuddin Ahmed took over as chief adviser, but failed to allay fears of a potentially bloody election. On 11 January 2007, President Iajuddin Ahmed declared a state of emergency. He resigned as chief adviser in the face of pressure from army chief General Moin U Ahmed . Former Governor of Bangladesh Central Bank Dr. Fakhruddin Ahmed was appointed as the Chief Adviser to the caretaker Government.
The army-backed caretaker government launched an anti-corruption operation, arresting 160 politicians, businessmen and bureaucrats. Even Khaleda Zia's two sons, including former Prime Minister Khaleda Zia and Sheikh Hasina, were arrested. Student protesters at Dhaka University demanded the restoration of democracy in August 2006, but the movement was suppressed by a curfew. Khaleda Zia and Sheikh Hasina were released in 2008. The state of emergency lasted for two years. In the December 2008 elections, the Awami League-led coalition won by a wide margin, including the Jatiya Party.
Hasina Administration (2009-present)
Within two months of the executive meeting, Sheikh Hasina's government had to deal with the BDR insurgency , which culminated in clashes with the army. Sheikh Hasina showed great success in dealing with the violence and anger of the rebels in the army. In 1971, he set up the controversial International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) to try pro-Pakistani leaders who were instrumental in the genocide . The tribunal was criticized for its fairness and impartiality. Most of the senior Jamaat-e-Islami leaders and activists have been accused of opposing Bangladesh's independence and aiding Pakistan during the genocide.
In 2010, the Supreme Court of Bangladesh re-established secularism as a fundamental principle of the Constitution. The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) conducted a public opinion in favor of secularism, which was published in the March 2013 Shahbag protests . In May 2013, an Islamist organization led by Hefazat-e-Islam also organized a massive counter-rally. In 2013 and 2015, there were mass killings of minorities in Bangladesh and of Westerners, bloggers , publishers and atheists . The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) has claimed responsibility for many of the attacks, although the Hasina government has blamed local terrorist groups.
The conflict between the Awami League and the BNP is often referred to as the Begum War. The Hasina government repealed the caretaker government's law in the constitution through the controversial Fifteenth Amendment. The BNP sees this as an attempt to corrupt the election process on behalf of the Awami League. Clashes between the League, BNP and Jamaat escalated into violence in ordinary life. This is the most violent election in the history of Bangladesh. The BNP boycotted the 2014 general elections; Where Jamaat is banned from elections. The election was criticized in multiple media outlets in the United States. Sheikh Hasina was sworn in as the Prime Minister for the third term.