Saturday, 28 November 2020

Cinema of Bangladesh


 Bangladeshi film refers to the film industry of undivided Bengal (up to 1947), East Pakistan and independent Bangladesh after 1971 .

Like many other countries in the world , film exhibitions started in Bangladesh (then East Bengal ) in the 1890s . Based on this formula, silent films were made and screened in the region in the 1900s and in the 1950s . Although the film originated in the 1910s , interest in full - length films began in the 1950s. It has taken almost 50 years for the film to adapt to the cultural environment here. In the 1990s, an average of 80 per year would be released as a feature film [II] . According to 2004 estimates, an average of about 100 films are released annually in Dhaka , the capital of Bangladesh .As such, the film industry in Bangladesh can be said to be quite large, although it is largely neglected in the Asian film industry.  



The first Bioscope Exhibition in Bangladesh was organized by Bradford Bioscope Company of Calcutta on 4 April 1896 at the bungalow of SDO (now DC) in Bhola subdivision (now Bhola district) of the then Bakerganj district . The Bioscope exhibition was held on 17 April at the Crown Theater in Patuatuli, Dhaka. The Crown Theater no longer exists. This bioscope had small isolated films. According to researcher Anupam Hayat , the films include Queen Victoria 's Jubilee Procession, the Battle of Greece and Turkey , and Princess Diana from a height of 300 feet.The Leap, the inauguration of the Tsar of Russia, the barber's shaving, the game of lions and mahouts, the sport of snow in England, the roads and subways of France. Even then, there were tickets for the general public to see the film through the Bioscope. Tickets cost from eight annas to three rupees.  

The Patuatuli the Jagannath College (now university ), Victoria Park ( Bahadur Shah Park ), Ahsan Manzil and outside the Manikganj subdivision (now District ) bagajuri village, Joydebpur (now district ) Bhawal estate palace , Faridpur district of Madaripur subdivision ( Nowadays Bioscope exhibition is organized in Shariatpur district ) Palang. The bioscope was shown at the house of Saratkumar Roy, Boalia zamindar of Rajshahi city ​​for a few days from January 26, 1900. Ticket prices varied from place to place. Weekly Hinduranjika published from RajshahiA report was published in the newspaper. The regular adventure of Bioscope Exhibition started from the Armanitola Jute Warehouse in Dhaka in 1913-14. Later, the first cinema hall in Bangladesh , Picture House , was built here in Dhaka , which was later renamed as Shabistan Hall.  

The Bengalis were not in the main role of the Bioscope Company formed in Calcutta. Hiralal Sen ( 18-1918) of Bagjuri village in Manikganj subdivision (now district) of Dhaka district formed The Royal Bioscope Company and started film production and exhibition. Founded in 1897, The Royal Bioscope Company was the first Bengali film effort. Hiralal Sen is also the first filmmaker of undivided BengalName recognized. He performed fragmentary parts of plays performed in different places and performed at the Classic Theater in Calcutta on 9 February 1901. By capturing important parts of popular dramas like Sitaram, Alibaba, Dollila, Bhramar, Hariraj Buddha etc. on camera and showing them to people in different parts of the country, he opened the door to great potential in Bengali filmmaking. Hiralal Sen is also a pioneer in the production of documentaries, commercials and news films.

Subcontinent full movies 

Dadasaheb Dhundiraj Govinda Phalke was the producer of the first full-length film in the subcontinent. In the history of Indian cinema, he is better known as Dadasaheb Phalke . In 1913, his silent picture Raja Harishchandra was released. Jyotish Bandyopadhyay on behalf of the Madan Theaters Company in Calcutta in 1917The first Bengali silent full-length film directed by Bishwamangal was released. The name of the director of the film, which was released on November 8, 1919, is disputed. Some researchers have named Rustomjee Dotiwala as the director of the film. Whatever the role of the director, the film was sponsored by Priyanath Gangopadhyay, the son of the manager of the Nawab Estate in Dhaka. He later rose to fame as a film producer and director. In 1921, a film called Bilat Ferat was released in Calcutta. Its producer and actor was Dhirendranath Gangopadhyay from Barisal district of Bangladesh .

Dhaka films 


The first film was made in Dhaka in 1927-28. The film Sukumari was made by some young cultural figures of the Nawab family . It's director was Ambujprasanna Gupta, the then sports teacher of Jagannath College. The protagonists of the film were Khwaja Nasrullah and Syed Abdus Sobhan. Note that the practice of women acting was not introduced then. Men also played female characters in the theater.

The East Bengal Cinematograph Company was formed in Dhaka on the initiative of the Nawab family. Ambujprasanna Gupta produced the silent full-length film The Last Kiss . Khwaja Ajmal, Khwaja Adil, Khwaja Akmal, Khwaja Shahed, Khwaja Nasrullah, Shailen Roy or Tona Babu were the actors in this film. However, women take part in it. The heroine was a baiji named Lolita or Buri. Two other baijis named Charubala, Devbala or Devi acted in it. An actress named Harimati also acted in it. The film was released in 1931 at Mukul Hall (now Azad Hall) in Dhaka. The premiere show was inaugurated by Dhaka University professor and eminent historian . Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (18-1970). He later served as the Vice-Chancellor of Dhaka University (1938-1942).

Prominent journalist Obaid-ul Haq , whose life was built in grief (1947) was produced and directed by Himadri Chowdhury. Although the film was made in Kolkata, it is an important event for Bangladesh. This is the first full-length film made by a Bangladeshi Muslim director. Udayan Chowdhury alias Ismail Muhammad built the Lord (1947) film. After partition, they returned to Dhaka and encouraged filmmaking. Initiatives were taken to build a production-distribution company and a studio to make films in the capital Dhaka. In 1948, Nazir Ahmed (1925-1990) made a documentary called In Our Midst, which is recognized as the first documentary in Bangladesh.

In the year following the language movement of 1952, the Film Unit (1953) was formed under the Public Relations Department to produce government propaganda. In 1954, the documentary Salamat was made from here under the direction of Nazir Ahmed.

Nazir Ahmed is an actor, filmmaker, radio worker and writer. His brother was Hamidur Rahman , the architect of the central Shaheed Minar in Dhaka . In 1955, the first film laboratory and studio was started in Dhaka on the initiative of Nazir Ahmed. He became the first executive director of the East Pakistan Film Development Corporation. From his story, Fateh Lohani made the famous film Asiya (1970). A documentary called Nabarun (1970). Nazir Ahmed was the director of a full-length film called New Horizons. 

Iqbal Films and Co-operative Film Makers Limited was formed in 1954. Mohammad Modabber , Mohiuddin, Shahidul Alam , Abdul Jabbar Khan , Kazi Nuruzzaman and others were associated with Iqbal Films . Dr. Abdus Sadeq , Dalil Ahmed, Azizul Haque , Dudu Mia , Poet Jasimuddin , Kazi Khaleq , Sarwar Hossain and others were with Co-operative Film Makers Limited. Dalil Ahmed's son Bulbul Ahmed and Dudu Miah's son Alamgir became established as popular heroes in Bangladeshi films.

In 1954, under the banner of Iqbal Films , Abdul Jabbar Khan started work on the first film in the region, Mukh O Mukhosh . Sarwar Hossain started the work of entertaining short films under the banner of Co-operative Film Makers. In June 1955, a government film studio was opened in Tejgaon.

On 3 August 1957, Abdul Jabbar Khan's first full-length Bengali film, Mukh O Mukhosh, was released. The director himself plays the protagonist. The heroine was Purnima Sen from Chittagong . Other characters were Inam Ahmed , Nazma (Piari ), Jahrat Ara, Ali Mansur, Rafiq, Nurul Anam Khan, Saifuddin , Bilkis Bari and others. Photographer QM Zaman, composer Samar Das, vocalists Abdul Alim and Mahbuba Hasanat were associated with the film.

When the East Pakistan Film Development Corporation (EPFDC) was established on 3 April 1956 through a bill raised by the then Industries Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (Bangabandhu, later Prime Minister and President of Independent Bangladesh), films were released every year since 1959 in collaboration with it. No films were released in this country in 1958 and 1956. Apart from FDC, Popular Studios, Bari Studios and Bengal Studios play a major role in the development of Bangladeshi films.

After the establishment of FDC, many deserving people came forward as the opportunity to make films was created. In 1959, apart from Fateh Lohani's Akash Aur Mati , Mohiuddin's Matir Pahar , Ehtesham's Edesh Tomar Amar, these three Bengali films were also released by A.J. Kardar's Jago Hua Savera is an Urdu film. Film buffs believe that each of the five films made in the early decade of Bangladeshi cinema has passed the industry standard despite its limitations. In other words, the journey of our film started with the promise of purity. Notable films have been made from that beginning till today. Tanhao of Baby Islam is also made in Urdu language. It received a censor certificate in 1970 but was released in 1984.

East pakistanakalina movie content 

A full-length film has started in the East Pakistan episode of Bangladesh with the story of a robber. The portrayal of Abdul Jabbar Khan 's play Dakat is the face and mask (1958). This film is not supposed to have the impression of professionalism. But it has its importance as the first film. One of the children of a farmer in the village fell into the clutches of the robbers and grew up like them. Another boy studied and became a policeman. But the police were friends with the robbers. Although the brothers did not know their identities, there was a robber-police relationship. At one point the robber boy kills his chief. The rogue police were arrested. The story ends with the father getting his two sons back. Abdul Jabbar Khan (1917-1993) Jowar Alo (1982), Nachghar (Urdu 1983), Banshari (198), Glass Cutting Diamond(1970) and Khelaraam (1973). He also produced a film called Ujala. During the war of liberation in 1971, Abdul Jabbar Khan worked as the head of the film department of the expatriate government. For his contributions to film, he received the Bacchus Award , FDC Silver Jubilee Medal, Uttaran Medal, Hiralal Sen Memorial Medal, Bikrampur Foundation Gold Medal, Film Directors Association Honor Medal, Film Archive Honor Symbol and Rainbow Film Society Honor Medal. He is a pioneer in making full-length films in Bangladesh. Abdul Jabbar Khan Library has been established in FDC in his honor .

In 1959, Akhtar Jung Kardar 's Jago Hua urducalaccitra sabhera Manik Bandyopadhyay Padma Majhi story. Although it has won awards and acclaim in the international arena, it has not been commercially successful. Zaheer Raihan acted as the main assistant in this film . In the same year, Ehtesham built this country on a rural background . Fateh Lohani's Akash Aur Mati and Mohiuddin's Mati Pahar - two other films of this year. Although the two films were good in terms of technical quality, they could not compete with the films in Bombay and Lahore. Fateh Lohani's Asiya (1980) and Ehtesham in the heart of the capital(1970) Notable film of the fifties. The film became very popular in the heart of the capital. Although it has not been a commercial success, it has won the President's Award and the Nigger Award . This life-giving film with the traditional scenes of rural Bengal gained acceptance in the intelligentsia. Some call it the imitation of Pather Panchali . Fateh Lohani (1920-1975) was a leading actor and film director among Bengali Muslims. Kiran Kumar acted under the pseudonym of filmmaker Bimal Roy in the Hindi film Hamrahi (1945). He acted in the play 'Jowar Natak' directed by Udayan Chowdhury (Ismail Mohammad) and produced by Himadri Chowdhury (Obaid-ul Haq). Dhaka monthly literary magazine in 1949, not necessarilyHe played a major role in the publication. That same year he joined Karachi Radio, later the BBC . Returning to Dhaka in 1954, he became involved in filmmaking, as well as radio programs, acting and writing. In addition to directing, he has acted in several films. His first film was Raja Elo Shahare (1974). Fateh Lohani's other film release bond (1947), Tanha (1964), Manasamangal (1966), Phir Milenge Hum dono (1966) Playing with Fire (1967), a view (1967), julekha (1967), no hope ( 196) Momer Alo (196), Mayar Sansar (1969), Misr Kumari (1970), Tansen (1970) etc. are notable.

In the sixties, Salahuddin made social films such as Yeh Nadi Marupathe (1971), Surya Snan (1982) and Dharapat (1983). Zaheer Raihan is a notable director of this period. The river has never deserted him, and (1961), Sonar Kajal (196, Kalim Sharafi with), glass walls (1963), Sangam (Urdu 1964), excuse (Urdu, 1965) highlight the creation of this period. Leaning towards Urdu films, he turned his eyes again to folk tales. He then created Anwara (198). Taken from Life (1960), Let There Be Light (1970) (Unfinished), Stop Genocide (1971) and A State Is Born (1971) were films that competed with the outside world.

Khan Ataur Rahman (1929-1996) emerged as a renowned director in the sixties . He is the director of the film, actor, screenwriter, singer, songwriter and composer known as eje .1956 returned to Dhaka in Kardar renowned actress in the film Jago Hua sabhera contentment Mitra, the main character was shaped. He made his directorial debut in 1983 with a well -known film. His films Raj Sannyasi, Tora Manush Ha , Sujan Sakhi , Din Jaaye Kotha Thaye , Danpite Chele (1980), Ahano Aanek Raat etc. established the film industry in Bangladesh. He is recognized as a contributor to the filmIn addition to the National Film Awards , Pakistan, Moscow and Tashkent won film awards.

Independent movies 

Among the film directors who emerged after independence was Alamgir Kabir (1938-1969). His film is a little Bahe Meghna (1973), the sun daughter (1976), beyond (1977), silver on the beach (1979), estuaries (198), wed (1986) and Hero (1984).

In the year of independence 1971, 6 films were released in this country. Among them are Nazrul Islam's notation , Ashok Ghosh's dance doll , Alamgir Kumkume 's Smritituku Thak and Khan Ataur Rahman's Sukh Dukh as social films.

In 1972, Alamgir Kabir's Slow Flowing Meghna , Zahirul Haque's Rangbaj , Subhash Dutt's Balaka Mann, Ritwik Ghatak's Titas, the name of a river, gave special meaning to Bengali cinema. Narayan Ghosh Mita 's light procession was created in 1984 in this healthy and creative style . In 1975, Narayan Ghosh Mita's Lathial , Khan Atar's Sujan Sakhi were the flow of this trend. In 1976, six films changed the concept of Bangladeshi cinema. Such as Rajen Tarafdar's couch, Harun Rashid's many colors of clouds , Alamgir Kabir's daughter Surya , Kabir Anwar's good morning, Abdus Samad's eclipseAnd Amjad Hossain 's nayanamani . Crossing the boundaries of Alamgir Kabir in 1976 , Subhash Dutt's Bashundhara demanded cleanliness and well-being. In 1986 , Amjad Hossain's Golapi is now on the train and Abdullah Al Mamune 's Sareng Bau is a happy film. The most talked about film of independent Bangladesh was made in 1989. The joint production of Mohiuddin Shaker and Sheikh Niyamt Ali , Surya Dighal Bari introduced Bangladeshi films to the international arena. Alamgir Kabir's Rupali Saike is also an excellent film of this period. Zahirul Haque's films made in the seventies and early eightiesGangster (1976), pranasajani (198), Ruhul Amin betrayer (1974), Ashok Ghosh dancing dolls (1971), CB Zaman good night (1985), Baby Islam depraved (1975), Nazrul Islam notation (1971), Abdul ratipha Bachchu magic Flute (198), Abdullah Al Mamun's Sakhi Tumi Kar ( 1970 ), Now is the Time (1980), Syed Hasan Imam's Lal Sabujer Pala (1980) etc. In 1980, Amjad Hossain's butcher , Dilip Som's Smriti Tumi Bedna was able to gain viewership.

Since the birth of Amjad Hossain in 1981, Jwalachi has maintained a healthy mood in the film. In 1972 , Chadhi Nazrul Islam's Devdas , Mostafa Anwar's Kajal Lata , Abdus Samad Khokon's Bara Bari Mein, Matin Rahman's Lal Kajal , Alamgir Kabir's Mohana are healthy social films in all senses. In 1983, CB Zaman Award and AJ Mintu's Mann Samman, Subhash Dutt's Nazma film Chalansai.

In 1974, Akhtaruzzaman's Princess Tina Khan, Kazi Hayat 's Rajbari, Kamal Ahmed's Grihalakshmi, Subhash Dutt's Sakal Sandhya, Chashi Nazrul Islam's Chandranath , Amjad Hossain's Sakhina's War and Bhat De . In 1975, Shakti Samanta and Syed Hasan Imam's Injustice , Sheikh Niyamt Ali's Dahan , Razzaq's step- brother and Shahidul Amin's Ram's Sumati were accepted by the audience. Subhash Dutt's Fulshayya (198), Alamgir Kabir's Parineeta ( 198 ), Chashi Nazrul Islam's Shubhada, Bulbul Ahmed's Rajlaxmi Srikant (198), Narayan Ghosh Mita's Lost Tune in the late eighties(198), Aftab Khan Tulu Dai K ( 198 ), Kabir Anwar's Tolpar ( 198 ), Mohiuddin Farooq's Birajbau ( 198 ) and Syed Salahuddin Zakir Aina Bibi Pala (1991), Ehtesham Chandni (1991).

Notable films have been made by Chashi Nazrul Islam's Hasan Raja , Tanvir Mokammel's Lalon (2004), Morshedul Islam's Dukhai , Lalsalu , Akhtaruzzaman's Insect Dwelling , Tarek Masud's Earth Moyna (2002), Kazi Morshed's Ghani (2006). These films, which are based on social issues, have gained a special status in terms of construction skills.

International recognition 

In 2002, Matir Moyna, directed by Tareq Masood , was nominated and screened in the Director's Fortnight category at the Cannes Film Festival, the world's largest film festival, the only achievement for Bangladesh with this film. In addition, in 2003, the film was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film . Although not nominated for the final prize, it was quite important. Because this is the first Bangladeshi film to be nominated for an Oscar . For the next two years, no Bangladeshi film competed for the Oscars. Every year since 2006, a film from Bangladesh is being submitted for the Oscars. Three of the films presented from 2006 to 2008 are Humayun Ahmed's Shyamal Chhaya , Abu Sayyid's constant and Ghulam Rabbani's dream of revolution . Mostafa Sorayar Farooqi 's film ' Dub ' has been released from Bangladesh in 2016 . Recently, the most acclaimed films in the international arena are Nasiruddin Yusuf's Guerrilla , Mostofa Sarwar Farooqi's Television , Amit Ashraf's Disappearance and Rubaiyat Hossain's Meherjan, which is widely discussed and criticized at home and abroad .

The decrease in the number of release 

There are 48 pictures on paper, including an Indian Bengali picture. In fact, there are 34 movies that have been released in cinemas. Not so few pictures have been released in the last 30 years. Although Masood Parvez Sohail Rana, president of the Film Producers and Distributors Association , has claimed that the number of films released will increase next year, the number of films under construction is unlikely to release more than 25 next year. One of the reasons for the low release was that the producers were in a crisis of reliable artists. As a result, fewer pictures were created, so more pictures were not released.

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