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Saturday, 28 November 2020

Architecture of Bangladesh

  




Architecture of Bangladesh refers to the structural features and styles of various structures in Bangladesh.  Bangladesh has a long history of architecture which is rooted in the culture , religion and history of this country . It has evolved over the centuries and is influenced by social, religious, and multinational communities. The architecture of Bangladesh has a great impact on the lifestyle, tradition and cultural life of the people of this country . In addition to modern and post-modern architecture, Bangladesh has numerous architectural monuments and ruins that are thousands of years old.


Pala Buddhist architecture 


The earliest empire of Indian Buddhist rule in Bengal ( which included present - day Bangladesh ) was the Pala Empire, which ruled from the eighth to the twelfth centuries. Pala created a new genre of mass architecture which was known as Pala Sculpture School . The vast Vikramshila Vihara, Odantapuru Vihara and Jagaddal Vihara were some of the notable achievements of the Palas. Somapura Mahavihara, established by Dharmapala at Paharpur , is the largest Buddhist monastery in the subcontinent and has been described as a beauty in the eyes of the world . UNESCO declared it a World Heritage Site in 1985 Recognizes as. Pala architecture was followed throughout Southeast Asia, China, Japan, and Tibet . Bengali rightly earned the title of "former mistress". Dr. "The architecture of Bihar and Bengal has had a lasting impact on Nepal , Burma, Sri Lanka and Java , " said Stella Kramrisk . Dhiman and Vittpal were two famous Pala sculptors. Mr. J.C. about Somapura Mahavihara. " We spend millions of dollars every year researching the pyramids in Egypt . But if we had spent only a fraction of that money on excavating the Somapura monastery, who knows what an amazing discovery would have been," French said sadly . 


Islamic and Mughal architecture 


The Sultanate of Bengal was between 1342 and 1576 when the Muslim Nawabs of Central Asian descent ruled independently of the Mughal Empire . Most of the Muslim architecture of this period is found in the Gaur region, which covered the present day Rajshahi division and the Malda district of West Bengal . A special feature of the architecture of this period was the influence of the local Bengali architectural tradition. The architecture of the Sultanate influenced architecture such as the Sixty Dome Mosque , the Sona Mosque and the Kusumba Mosque .  


Around 156, the Mughal Empire spread to most parts of Bengal. Dhaka emerged as a military base for the Mughals. In 1608 subahdar first-Islam Khan, the city Bengali Subah capital as a result of the development of urbanization and population growth in a wide range of accommodation, and this is the construction of numerous mosques and forts. Bara Katra was built between 1644 and 1848, as the official residence of Shah Sujar , the second son of Emperor Shah Jahan .


Today reached the final stage of the Indian Mughal Subedar of Shaista Khan's regime, civil architecture in the modern urbanization and large-scale urbanization and economic expansion encouraged to make an She also was a patron of art and the architecture of the province, such as mosques , tombs and encouraged the construction of the palace, Which represented some of the best Mughal architectural monuments. Khan expanded Lalbagh Fort (also known as Aurangabad Fort), Chawk Bazar Mosque , Saat Mosque and Chhota Katra . He supervised the construction of the mausoleum of his daughter Paribibi.


Terracotta temple architecture 


Most of the terracotta temples in Bangladesh were built at the end of Muslim rule and at the beginning of British rule by wealthy Hindu zamindars.


Types of temple architecture:

  1. Ek Bangla , a curved roof with two slopes.

  2. Jodi Bangla , Ekbangla or Do-chala type roof, the two curved parts of which come together at a curved peak.

  3. One-shed , one-story, or two-story architecture with a sloping roof.

  4. Dochala , a curved roof with two slopes.

  5. Charchala , a curved roof made up of four triangular pieces. have a curved roof composed of four triangular segments

  6. Atchala , the main pillar is like a four-cornered Charchala temple. But at the top there is a small structure of the main pillar.

  7. Deul , usually small in size and influenced by some features of Islamic architecture.

  8. Ekratna , the main pillar, is like a four-cornered temple. But the roof is different, flat and has a tower in the center.

  9. Pancharatna , there are five towers on the roof; Four are at the corners of the main level, one is in the middle.

  10. Navaratna consists of two main levels, each with four high peaks, one at each corner and one in the middle. A total of nine.


Bungalow kind of architecture 


 

The historical land of the beginning of bungalow architecture is the province of Bengal . "Bungalow" actually means " Bengali " and in a distorted sense means "Bengali type house".  The houses were traditionally small, with only one storey, secluded, spacious courtyard , used by the British, on their way back from the Himalayas in the summer, and outside the Indian city as the home of the provincial administrator. Bungalow type houses are still famous in rural Bengal. In modern times, grooved steel sheets are used as the main architectural material. Earlier wood, bamboo and straw were used. Straw was used to keep the houses cool even in summer. The bungalows used red bricks as roof coverings.


Indo-saracenic return architecture 

The Indo-European type, which was prevalent in the past during the British colonial era, began to improve, which is a mixture of Indian, European and Central Asian (Islamic) elements. The architecture of the city Ahsan Manzil and Dhaka city located Tajhat Royal Palace .



The modern architecture 


In the present context, the architecture of Bangladesh has become diverse as a result of the vast advancement of architectural materials, art and technology. In the post-independence period, the economic development of Bangladesh has brought architecture from its traditional form to its modern form. In tandem with urbanization and modernization, the architectural style is becoming more and more modern, encompassing history and tradition to a great extent. The architecture of Bangladesh reveals in-depth information about the history and life of the people of this country.  


Fazlur Rahman Khan was an infrastructure engineer and architect who introduced the basic methods of building high-rise buildings in today's era. Known as the "Einstein of infrastructure engineering",   Khan's "cylindrical design" revolutionized the design of multi-storey buildings.   Since the 1970s, most of the 40-storey buildings have been built on a cylindrical design derived from Khan's engineering principles. The Willis Tower, America's second tallest building (once the tallest not only in the United States but worldwide and for many years), John Hancock Center , Hodge TerminalHe is the architect of etc. His design not only gave the buildings a stronger and more efficient look, but also reduced the use of materials (cost-effective) in the construction of the buildings and made it possible to gradually increase the height of the buildings. The cylindrical design, enhancing the interior space, gives architects unimaginable freedom by helping the building take on any shape.   He invented the sky lobby for easy access to multi-storey buildings and introduced the widespread use of computers in infrastructure design. Fazlur Rahman is a leading infrastructure engineer of the 20th century who has left an unimaginable and lasting legacy in this profession at the national and international level.  Fazlur Rahman contributed more than any other man to the procession to build skyscrapers in the last half of the 20th century .And this has made it possible for people to live and work in the "city of the heavens."  Khan introduced a style that is unparalleled and exemplary in architectural and infrastructural engineering.  

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