Saturday, 28 November 2020

History of the Jews in Bangladesh

 


 


The history of the Jews to the east of East Pakistan known as Bangladesh, a small Jewish community, is history. The history of the Jews in the country dates back to the 18th and 19th centuries. There was a small community of Jews in British India and Pakistan in present day Bangladesh, especially in the city ​​of Dhaka . News of Jewish residents in Rajshahi has also been received.  The Jews of Bangladesh are known as Baghdadi Jews and Ben Israel. Most of these Jews emigrated in the 1980s.


Jews have been associated with the modern history of Bangladesh. Some prominent Jewish residents included Mordecai Cohen, a former television news reader and actor;  and Alex Aronson, an academic at Dhaka University.  Some of the foreign Jews who are particularly associated with the country are the American architect Louis Kahn , who designed the parliament of Bangladesh ; And JFR Jacob , an Indian Army general who served in the Bangladesh Liberation War .


History 


 

Mesopotamian Jews, also known as Baghdadi Jews, settled in East Bengal.  During the Mughal period, East Bengal was the center of Eurasian merchants due to the prosperous muslin trade in Bengal . Baghdadi Jewish merchants may have settled in Dhaka in the 17th century. The region was later ruled by the British Empire . German Jewish educator and Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore in a significant period of the colonial periodFriend Alex Aronson is involved. At the outbreak of World War II, Aronson was viewed as an enemy by the British colonial government. Despite being Jewish, he was suspected of being an Axis German spy. Arnson was arrested and placed under house arrest, which disrupted his work at Santiniketan University. His friend Tagore requested the British government to release him but Tagore's request was initially rejected. He then enlisted the help of Khwaja Nazimuddin, the Prime Minister of Bengal, to secure the release of Tagore Arnson . After Tagore's death in 1941, Aronson began teaching at Dhaka University in his hometown of Sir Nazimuddin, a member of the Dhaka Nawab family .


The Jews were mainly concentrated in Calcutta, West Bengal. They were able to create a whole community, synagogues, schools and hospitals for the Jewish community, where East Bengal Jews, mainly expatriates from Calcutta, lived there for commercial reasons. In 1947, the British partition of India in East Jews, there were about 135.  Born in Rajshahi, Mordechai Cohen became an English and Bengali news reader for Pakistan Television in Dhaka, East Pakistan .   Members of the Ben Israel community also lived in Dhaka in the 1980s. In the late 1960s, most of the Jewish community was in CalcuttaLeft. According to historian Ziauddin Tariq Ali, trustee of the Liberation War Museum , "Bangladesh [after independence] had two Jewish families, but both migrated to India - one in 1973 and the other in 1975."  


Polish-American-Jewish architect Louis Kahn East Pakistan and Bangladesh after the independence of the National Assembly building, the design worked for . Major General JFR Jacob surrendered to Pakistan during the Bangladesh War of IndependencePlayed a key role. According to a Jewish Telegraph record, on February 8, 1972, it was stated that "Israel has officially recognized the new state of Bangladesh." In a radio message on Friday, Foreign Minister Aba Iban made the recognition to Bangladesh Foreign Minister Abdus Samad Azad, the statement said. The decision was taken after a telephone consultation with all members of the cabinet on Friday without waiting for the regular cabinet meeting to take place. Earlier in April, a letter from acting president Nazrul Islam and foreign minister in the Bengali interim government, Mustaq Ahmed, first requested Israeli recognition for those involved in the war for independence from Pakistan. " 


There is no official diplomatic relationship between Bangladesh and Israel .





Coal mining in Bangladesh

 

 



The first coal mine in Bangladesh was discovered in 1972 at Jamalganj .  The mines of Bangladesh consist mainly of coal , granite , natural gas and petroleum mines.


History 

From the time of the re- partition of British India, coal from the Garo Hills of Meghalaya came to East Bengal and was traded . A mining office was opened in Dhaka with the help of the British Rail Network of India for the coal trade. In 1961, the UN-Pak Mineral Survey Project began surveying the then East Pakistan (today's Bangladesh) with a geological survey of Pakistan. The survey of 196 Sunamganj District 's Jamalganj 1.05 million tonnes of coal was found. The next major discovery was made in 1975 when the Geological Survey of BangladeshDiscovered coal in Dinajpur. One coal field was discovered in 1979 at Khalaspur, Rangpur district and another was discovered in 1999 at Deopara by the Geological Survey of Bangladesh. Multinational BHP Billiton discovered the Phulbari coal field in 1997. Global Coal Management plc is awaiting approval of Phulbari coal field. Bangladesh has an estimated 2 billion tons of coal in underground reservoirs in the northwestern region of Bangladesh. Exploration of Bangladeshi coal reserves is unexpectedly low due to concerns about methods, technology and social consequences. Coal and limestone mined in Meghalaya are transported to Bangladesh, and cement in this countryUsed in factories. Two percent of Bangladesh's total energy production is generated by coal. The Bangladesh government plans to increase current energy production from 2 percent to 50 percent by 2021.


Barapukuria coal mine


Barapukuria Coal Mine is operated by Barapukuria Coal Mining Company Limited. Barapukuria Coal Mining Company Limited is a subsidiary of state-owned Petrobangla . The mine is located in Dinajpur, it is the only active mine in Bangladesh. Locals near the mine reported damage to their homes. The reservoirs near the mine have dried up. In response, the government acquired land near the mine.


In July 2016, it was reported that officials of the Barapukuria Coal Mining Company Limited had forged about 14.2 million tonnes of coal worth more than 228 billion. The incident became popular as a Barapukuria coal scam .




Agriculture in Bangladesh

 

 




Agriculture is the largest source of employment in Bangladesh. According to the 2016 Economic Survey of Bangladesh, it supplies 40.6 percent of the total labor force and contributes 14.10 percent to the country's GDP.  The role of this sector in the macro-economy of the country such as job creation, poverty alleviation, human resource development and food security is undeniable.


A large part of the people of Bangladesh depend on agriculture for their livelihood. Although paddy and jute are the main crops here, wheat is of greater importance. Tea is cultivated in the north-eastern region. Due to the abundance of fertile land and water, paddy is produced and cultivated three times a year in many parts of Bangladesh. Despite the unfavorable weather, Bangladesh's labor-intensive agriculture has achieved a level of improvement in food production for a number of reasons. The reasons include flood control and irrigation, optimal use and supply of fertilizers and bringing rural people under debt. In 2000, the production of rice was 35.7 million metric tons, which is the main crop of Bangladesh. In 2003, domestic use of various pesticides used in rice such as granular carbofuran, synthetic pyrethroids and malathion exceeded 13,000 tons. Pesticides not only pose a threat to the environment but also pose an additional cost burden for poor farmers. Bangladesh Rice Research Institute is working with various NGOs and international organizations to reduce the use of pesticides in paddy .  


Compared to paddy, wheat production in 1999 was 19 million metric tons. The pressure of the growing population is constantly hampering the flow of production which is responsible for creating food shortages, of which wheat is one. Foreign aid and trade imports are filling this gap.  Unemployment is a major problem and one of the main concerns in the agricultural sector in Bangladesh. Finding alternative sources of employment will be a complex issue for future governments, especially with landless farmers who provide half of rural labor.



Cereal 


 

Paddy, wheat, mango and jute are the main crops here. Due to the widespread expansion of irrigation facilities, many wheat growers are turning to maize production which is mainly used in poultry farms.  Paddy is the main crop of Bangladesh, with a production of 26.7 million metric tons in 2005-06. Andi had a production of 9 million metric tons of wheat in 2005-06.


 

Bangladesh is the fourth largest rice producer in the world. Wheat is not a perennial crop of Bangladesh and its production started in small scale in rural areas from late 1980s.  Demand for this specialty continued to grow in the 1960s and 1970s, when wheat was one of the mainstays of foreign aid. In the first half of the eighties, the annual production of domestic wheat exceeded 1 million tons, but it was only 8 to 9 percent of the total food production. A record 1.5 million metric tons of wheat production target was achieved in FY 1985. About half a percent of wheat production was on irrigated land. The amount of land under wheat cultivation remained unchanged from 1980 to 1986, which is less than 7% of the total cultivable land.


Most of the imported food is wheat which is increasing at the rate of 1 million tonnes per annum and in the fiscal years 1974, 1975 and 1986 it exceeded 1.6 million tonnes. Most of the imported wheat is funded by the United States, the European Economic Committee and the World Food Program.


The production of food grains is mainly to meet the domestic demand. A limited percentage is commercially available. Potatoes and sweet potatoes are among the food grains produced to meet the domestic demand. The total production of both in 1974 was 25,000 tons. Also produced fruits include mango, banana, jackfruit and pineapple. The annual production of sugar is more than 6 million tons which is produced in some process. Raw sugarcane is known as molasses which is sold in the domestic market.




Cricket in Bangladesh

 





In 1986, for the first time, he became an associate member of the World Cricket Council in recognition of the success of the cricketing world , which was formed with the encouragement of Bangladeshi sportspersons, sports organizers and players . Through the efforts of the then Bangladesh Cricket Association, the Bangladesh national cricket team gradually qualified to play at the international level. Two days, three days, four days have passed a long way to go level with Bangladesh in 1997, ICC Championship, the winner of the largest events in world cricket, " ICC Cricket World Cup 1999," The opportunity to play. Participation for the first time brought Bangladesh a historic victory against a strong Pakistan .


The history of cricket in Bangladesh 

Arrival of the game 

The arrival of cricket in Bangladesh was through the English . The British introduced cricket in the area during the British colonial rule in undivided India . During the British rule, cricket in Bengal was mainly centered on West Bengal . Wisden According to the Calcutta Cricket Club was formed in 1792 in. The oldest news about the history of cricket was first found in Dhaka in 1857. The match is between "Dhaka Station" and "Her Majesty Fifty Fourth Regiment". All the members of the regiment came during or after the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857. Charles Steward, who was the Joint Magistrate of Dhaka in 18-7, wrote in his memoirs that "there was a cricket ground in Dhaka and New Year's Day was celebrated by playing cricket on that ground". The first indigenous cricketers in Dhaka are known from the news of the 17th newspaper. The game was played between "Europeans" and "natives". The playground was the "Old Lines" now known as the Old Paltan.  The game of cricket then became even stronger when the "Dhaka College Club" at Dhaka College, The members of this club used to practice cricket regularly and go to different places to play cricket matches. The club gained a reputation as a first class cricket club all over Bengal. According to a 1891 newspaper, the first cricket match between the two Bengals was played in Calcutta. Between Dhaka College Club and Shibpur College. Dhaka won the match in two days. In 1928, the M.C.C. Plays with undivided India at Eden Gardens, Kolkata . In 1935, he took partin the Bangla Ranji Trophy for the first time.


From 1947 to 1971. 

After partition in 1947, the territory became known as East Pakistan. Various local teams from East Pakistan have been participating in the Quaid-e-Azam Trophy since 1954. The first Test match between Pakistan and India was played in January 1955 at the newly constructed Dhaka Stadium (now Bangabandhu Stadium ) . A total of 6 Test matches were played at this stadium between 1955 and 1969. However, no East Pakistani player got a chance to play in the Pakistan XI. However, in the 1989-80 season, Rakibul Hasan of East Pakistan got a chance to be the twelfth player in the Pakistan-New Zealand Test series held in Dhaka .


From 1972 to 1996 

In 1972 Bangladesh Cricket Control Board was formed. Cricket leagues started in Dhaka and Chittagong . The national level cricket competition started in the 1974/75 season, the first and second division leagues started at the district level. Gradually other competitions like Shaheed Smriti Cricket, Damal Summer Cricket, Star Summer Cricket, National Youth Cricket, Inter-University Competition etc. started. In December 198 , M.C.C. He came to play in Bangladesh for the first time. July 6, 1977, Bangladesh ICC's associate membership of the gain. Sri Lanka , India , Pakistan in Bangladesh since the late 70sFrom then on different teams started coming on tour. M.C.C. Comes to this country several times. Bangladesh participated in the first ICC Trophy held in 1989 . Participated in the second ICC Trophy in 1982. In this they got fourth place. In March 1978, Bangladesh participated in the second Asia Cup held in Sri Lanka . In this competition, Bangladesh played their first one-day international match against Pakistan. In the same year, Bangladesh participated in the third ICC Trophy. 1983 The third Asia Cup was held in Bangladesh. The venues for this Asia Cup were Dhaka and Chittagong. In 1990 in SharjahBangladesh participated in the Australasia Cup. They played their fourth ICC Trophy that year. In this they got third place. At that time, the top team of the ICC Trophy had the opportunity to participate in the Cricket World Cup. In December 1990, Bangladesh participated in the fourth Asia Cup. In 1994, the fifth ICC Trophy was held in Kenya . From then on, the rules are that the top 3 teams in this competition will get a chance to play in the next World Cup. Bangladesh lost to hosts Nairobi Gymkhana in Kenya and failed to reach the semifinals.


1997-present 

In 1996, the 6th ICC Trophy was held in Malaysia . The entire competition was held on an artificial turf-laid pitch. In the semi-finals of this tournament, Bangladesh qualified for the World Cup for the first time by defeating Holland with the outstanding batting strength of the then captain Akram Khan (the top 3 teams got this opportunity). Bangladesh became the champions by defeating Kenya by 1 wicket in the rain interrupted final. In the same year, Bangladesh was given ODI status by the ICC. Bangladesh won their first one-day international in 1996 by defeating Kenya in a tri-nation tournament in India. In October of that year, a knockout style mini World Cup was organized in Bangladesh with all the Test playing nations. In 1999, the 8th Cricket World Cup was held in England . In Bangladesh on 24 MayThey beat Scotland by 22 runs and Pakistan by 62 runs at Northampton on 31 May and 31 May . In the 1999-2000 season, a first-class national cricket league was started in the country, in which all the divisional teams took part. On June 26, 2000, Bangladesh gained Test status. Bangladesh played their debut Test match against India at the Bangabandhu Stadium in Dhaka from 10 to 14 November of that year .


Control Organization 

 

Bangladesh Cricket Control Agency Bangladesh Cricket Board (BCB) (former Bangladesh Cricket Control Organization was known as) was established in 197. Bangladesh is a full member of the International Cricket Council and the Asian Cricket Council .


Cricket grounds

Notable ODI and Test venues are:


  1. Bangabandhu National Stadium , Dhaka (No longer hosts cricket)

  2. Sher-e-Bangla National Cricket Stadium , Mirpur , Dhaka

  3. Khan Saheb Osman Ali Stadium , Fatullah, Narayanganj

  4. Zahur Ahmed Chowdhury Stadium , Chittagong

  5. MA Aziz Stadium , Chittagong

  6. Shaheed Chandu Stadium , Bogra

  7. Sheikh Abu Naser Stadium , Khulna

  8. Sylhet International Cricket Stadium , Sylhet

  9. Sheikh Kamal International Cricket Stadium, Cox's Bazar






Tea production in Bangladesh

 


 




Bangladesh is an important tea producing country. Its tea industry dates back to the British rule , when the British East India Company started tea business in Chittagong in 1840 .  At present, Bangladesh has 16 commercial tea estates, some of which are the largest operational tea gardens in the world. The industry produces 3% of the world's tea, and employs 4 million people.  

Tea is produced in the northern and eastern districts; Highlands, warm climates, humid and rain-prone areas create an environment conducive to the production of high quality tea.



History 


 

Historically, Bengal Tea Horse Road was the end, the subcontinent 's first tea-producing region llanera connected to that. Atish Dipankar is considered to be one of the earliest Bengali tea drinkers.

The cultivation of black tea in the province of Bengal started during the British rule . European traders established the subcontinent's first tea garden in the port city of Chittagong in 1840 , when Chinese tea trees were brought from the Calcutta Botanical Gardens and planted next to the Chittagong Club . The first tea was made and drunk in 1843 on the banks of the Karnafuli River in Chittagong . The first commercial cultivation of tea began in 1857 at the Malnichhara tea garden in Sylhet . The Surma river valley in the Sylhet region is in East BengalKnown as the center of tea production. Tea cultivation also started in Lower Tripura (now Comilla ) and Panchagarh in North Bengal . Panchagarh is the third tea region of Bangladesh and the most sought after tea is produced here.



Tea was a significant export of British Bengal. The Assam-Bengal Railway has served as the lifeline of the industry by delivering tea from tea farmers in the Surma and Brahmaputra valleys to exporters in the port of Chittagong . 

Chittagong Tea Auction was established in 1949 by British and Australian traders. British companies such as James Finlay and Duncan Brothers once dominated the industry. The Ispahani family was also a famous partner in the industry. 


Industry 


A tea garden in Sylhet district .

After jute , tea is the most exported cash crop in Bangladesh. This industry accounts for 1% of the national GDP.  Tea producing districts are Moulvibazar , Habiganj , Sylhet , Chittagong , Panchagarh , Brahmanbaria and Rangamati

Once a major tea exporter in the world, Bangladesh is now just an ordinary exporter.  The rise of the Bangladeshi middle class has largely driven the industry towards a lucrative domestic market. At present the sector is being managed by Bangladeshi companies like MM Ispahani Limited, Kazi & Kazi, Transcom Group , James Finlay Bangladesh, Orion Group, Abul Khair Group and Duncan Brothers Bangladesh Limited.


In 2012, Bangladesh produced a record amount of tea, which was about 8,375 crore kilograms. [14] Whereas in 1947 there were 26,634 hectares of land, now there are more than 56,848 hectares being used for the cultivation of this industry.Currently, the government has taken initiatives to develop small scale tea growers in the industry, especially in the Chittagong Hill Tracts .


The price of tea in Bangladesh is determined through a government auction in Chittagong. In March 2015, the international market price of Bangladeshi tea was US $ 2.40.  



Labor 

There are more than 300,000 tea plantations in Bangladesh. 75% of whom are women.Many of the workers are tribal people who were brought from Central India during the British rule.


Government institutions 

The Bangladesh Tea Board and the Bangladesh Tea Research Institute are supporting the production, attestation, and export of tea for trade in Bangladesh . The Bangladesh Tea Research Institute began work on improving the quality of tea in 1956, by inventing genes to produce and develop high quality high yielding leaves.




Driving licence in Bangladesh

 




The Bangladesh Road Transport Authority ( popularly known as BRTA ) is the only authority to issue driving licenses in Bangladesh.  Under the Motor Honda Ordinance 1983, which is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Communications, the BRTA regulates this activity in a special process by 63 administrative circles located in 32 districts and approves any person wishing to ride a motorcycle. In order to provide this, the authority issues a license to an applicant if it deems it capable of complying with certain rules and has passed the driving test for riding a motorcycle.


To apply for licenses 

BRTA states in accordance with Section 3 of the Motor Honda Ordinance 1983 :  


Everyone must have a driving license to drive a motor vehicle in a public place. A student must have a driver's license before the driving test can be obtained in order to obtain a driver's license. Application for student's license to be submitted to the licensing authority in the prescribed form along with the relevant documents and fees. An applicant must be able to read and write in Bengali or English without being a foreigner. The successful candidate for the driving test has to submit the application in the prescribed form to the licensee along with the relevant documents and fees.


Chapter 4 further states that the minimum age for applying for a non-professional license should be 18 years and for a professional professional application it should be 20 years. So no one under the age of 18 can drive a motor vehicle in Bangladesh and it cannot be a profession for anyone under the age of 20.  

The vehicles are divided into seven categories namely H ( heavy ), M (medium), L ( light ), C ( motorcycle ), T (three-wheeler), P (PSV) and X (other).  


Penalties

Any law enforcer including the police, Rapid Action Battalion, Armed Police Battalion  or military personnel in special duties are authorised to ask for a driving licence if that specific driver is found to violate or being subjected to violation of any of the traffic or other laws while driving a vehicle. However, only the police are authorised to seize the licence and other authorisation documents of vehicles and then file cases against the violators if necessary. The licence can be held to be given in exchange of specific fines or can be permanently seized as per the laws.



 



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